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AUGUST 1993 

ISSUE 0395 
USA $2.95 
CAN $3.95 

A WGI Publication 
Jntemational Edition 




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J^ Amateur 

Radio Today 



August 1993 
Issue #395 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



FEATURES 



1 A Decade of Packet 



An anthology of 73 packet radio articles from 1983 to 1993. 

,„„„.. .WAIRZW 



t pa ■ B « ■* « f-V ■ «"« 4 »#* «•■«■••« 



22 FM Packet Deviation Meter 

Put your packet station on the money for 20 bucks „...N50WK 



40 Julieboard 

An easy-to*build DDS synthesizer for the PC printer port, 

54 Computer Control 
for Beam Antennas, 
Parti 

Give your station a 
smart, new twist 



,VE3JIL 



REVIEWS 



28 PCPakrattfor 

Windows 

Love at first byte. 

N1EWO 



I ■ I V V V V ^ 




DEPARTMENTS 



70 Above and Beyond 

81 Ad Index 

74 Ask Kaboom 

68 ATV 

87 Barter 'n' Buy 

48 Cdrr's Comer 

80 Dealer Directory 

17 Feedback Index 

00 Ham Help 

64 Hams with Class 

S2 Hamsats 

62 IHoming In 

6 Letters 

4 Never Say Dte 
90 New Products 
58 Packet A Computers 
90 Propagation 

ee QRP 

8 0RX 

96 Random Output 
60 RTFY Loop 
76 73 International 
60 Special Events 
94 Uncle Wayne's 

Bookshelf 
20 Updates 



34 TheSTARTEK 
ATH-15 

Portable Frequency 
Counter 

Make your life easier 

36 TheAEA 

PK-900 

State-of-the-art digital 
ham radio...... ...,..N1 EWO 

Cover The AEA PK-BOO and Pakmtt for Windows sofiwam. See the exclusive reviews 
sta rting on pages 28 and 38. Photo by Da vid Cassidy N 1 GPH. 



What's a Mieix)ar07 See page 40. 



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Graphics, Thomaston. Georgia 



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phorie 603-924-0058 



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Manuscripts Contributions in the form of manuscnpis w^h drawings and/or photographs are weJcofne arid vM 
be consictered for po^il^la publication. We can assume no responstotlity for l(^s or damage to anj^ maieriaL 
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73 Amsisar Rsdio To^r (ISSN 1052-2522) is pi^Med monlNy by Wayne Gtieen Inc., 70 Floute 202 North. 
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73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 3 



Number 1 on your Feedback card 



Ni 



EVER SAY DIE 



Wayne Green W2NSD/1 



The Ugly Americans 

No. w% don'i have a complete lock 
on being ugty, but we sure are way oul 
ahead of whoever is in second place. 
Oyr recent and successful effort ta 
chase His Majesty King Hussein JYI . 
the most famous ham tn the worjd. off 
our bands with catcalls arxl name-calt- 
ing is one of wh»cb all Americans can 
be proud. We can also point with pride 
Xq our ooftdnuing stupidity on 14.313, 

One does not have to visit very 
many countries 10 find ool what kind of 
reputalion Americans have. The lack of 
consideration we axhibrt in chasing OX 
is something they see m mosi Ameri- 
can tourists, too. Triey claim we make 
up in arrogance wi^^l we lack in educa- 
tion and culture. 

We tend to come across as unintelli- 
gent, but it isn^t that. I'm convinced il^s 
our educational system. Indeed, \i 
you've taken the time to find out aboiit 
tQ and IQ tests you Know thai (a) 
Asians have a several-point lead on 
whiles in IQ, and that (b) Amerlcart 
blacks tend to have a 15-polnt lag. You 
also know that (c) few journalists have 
t>othered to learn the well -documented 
tacts before writing on this emotlonaiiy- 
charged subject, 

Alas, there's far too Utile corre>lation 
between having brains and using them. 
A compuler is pretty useless when 
some of the keys are oul of action and 
the programs have too Httle data with 
which to work. Well, the same goes for 
our brains. If we load them down with 
garbage, it*s the old computer clich^: 
garbage in = garbage out. 

So here we are with an educational 
system dunrtping garbage into liltle 
minds. We make up for thai by virtually 
cutting oft alJ intelligent communication 
with our kids. Irustirtg ihem to learn 
how to interact with people via what 
they're watching on TV. Perhaps we 
deserve what we get 

No. I don't agree with King Hus- 
sein's support of Saddam But I under- 
stand Ihe fix he's tn. wrth a targe part of 
his people being Palestinians and be- 
ing sucked in by Saddam's propaganda 
. . . plus a burtch ol wishful thinking. I 
doubt any of us would have done as 
well as His Majesty under tt^e ciroum- 
sfarx^s. He's treading a tightrope over 
a tinder box. to coin a comtxi-dich^^ 

Of course. I'm chiicat of HM's get- 
ttig into this Tm. I think he could have 
avoided it. He's in trouble for the same 
reason w© are . . . he's allowed a really 
terrble educationat system to develop. 
I know you're going to find this difficult 
to believe, but Jordanian kkfe are even 
stupider than American kids, and it's 
got noming to do witn their basic mtelli- 




gence. Our kids come out nesfl to tt>e 
worst in surveys. Only the Jordanian 
k^ds have managed to beat us out of 
last place in intemaiionai comparison 
testSu 

His Majesty has 6or\e a lot of good 
things for Jordan, But he's been so in- 
volved witti Mideast politics that he's let 
some very important tbings slip through 
the cracks. In addition to re -inventing 
the Jordanian educational system, he 
also needs to put sonie effort into elimi- 
nating graft as a means of getting rich 
and put more emphasis on rewarding 
people who are working hard to im- 
prove the business dimate. 

He had a wonderful opportunity to 
provide leadership and help to the 
Palestinians in Israel by providing 
educational programs in Arabic on his 
TV stations and beaming 'em into near- 
by Israel. Duiing the Intefada the 
Israelis closed the Palestinian schools. 
This seemed like a really dumb ap- 
proach. It's ignorance that's the main 
enemy in that part of the world. About 
the only benefit to ignorance anywhere 
Is the ability it provides to those with an 
education to take advantage of the 
ignorant. 

Jordan has no natural resources of 
value, only its people. Thus, the more 
His Majesty invests in his people's edu- 
cation, the richer his country will be. 
and the better the legacy he wHI leave. 

Several years ago I tried to convince 
HM of this^ pointing out the potential 
Jordan had to become the educational 
center for the whole Arab world. Once 
they started broadcasting educational 
programs on TV they could also pack- 
age them on videotape and easily re- 
pay the production costs. What cours- 
es? I had in mind everything from 
preschool on through to Ph.D. gradu- 
ate courses, i had in mind courses 
helping people to learn special skills. 
Engineering, archlteoiure^ business, 
ecology, nutrition, astrofKHny, medicine, 
and so on. No. many of these won't 
eliminate the need ^of a live teacti0r, 
but they woukJ make it possible for live 
teact>ers to reach a much wider range 
of pupils. 

This approach to teadiing will even 
work well with cooperative learning, 
where students work in teams and 
teachers are cheerleaders instead of 
irtslructors. This is a relatively new ap- 
proach to teaching which is winning 
converts all around the world. I cover 
this in my book {Deciare War), so I 
won't go into detail here on how it 
works. 



What Can We Do? 

The first step is to throw some light 
4 73 Amateur Radio Today* August. 1 993 



on the jerks who are devoting their 
Uves to rutnir>g our hobby. This means 
we need to get good at kxating these 
ham terrorists. The FCC has some 
very sophisticated direction finding 
equipment these days, so id love to 
see some articles on how we car^ buiJd 
what it lakes to lif>d these jerks. 

Tve already explained in the past 
how we can identify any individual 
transmitter just by its charade rustics. 
Every rig has a slightly different finger- 
print. All you do is record it and expand 
the starting edge of a transmission and 
you1l see that rto two are precisely the 
same. We need some articles on this 
technc^ogy. As far as I know this stuff 
isn1 classified, so let's see some arti- 
cles. 

Once we find out who these jerks 
are we can throw the spotlight on them 
and watch them scurry for cover, like 
the stinking roaches they are. 

What better activity for a radio club 
than helping to clean up our hobby? 
We're supposed to be self-poi icing, so 
let's get our act together and deliver on 
our promise and stop calling the FCC 
and whining every time we have prob- 
lems. 

We can dean out 14.313 in short or- 
der it we really want to. And ditto any 
other festering sores that boil up. 

If You Hear HM... 

Tell him Wayne will be glad to come 
over and help get his educational sys* 
tern out of the cellar. I haven't visited 
Jordan tn years, so it's about time 
I wandered over that way, Jordan fs 
ideally located to help eventually sofve 
the Israeli-Arab mess, as well as to 
stop ihe move to Muslim fundamental- 
ism whic^ is even a greater danger in 
the long run. All of these problems can 
be solved with education. But then, that 
holds for all the rest of the worlds prob- 
terns, too. Including oirrs. 

There's no other investment that 
pays oH nearty as well as one in educa- 
tkKt 

Is It Ttm« To Change? 

A letter from Brent Putnam l^UBD 
asking about combining tt*e Novice af>d 
Tech licenses got me to thinking . . . 
always a bad sign. Now I know you ane 
perfectly happy with ttte Novice, two 
kinds of Tech. the General. Advanced, 
and Extra Classes of license. And I 
kjiow you r^lly hate change. So wtiat 
I'm going to discuss you re probably 
goir^ to hate. Worse, I'm going to ask 
you to actually . . . gasp . , . think! Yes. 
t'm tiding sarcastic, thereby offending 
the half of you who actually do enjoy 
thinking, and at lt>e sarne time offend* 



ing the other halt who find the whole 
concept of thinking alien. 

I like to tackle problems by going 
back to bastes and forgetting whatever 
Byzantine things have evolved so tar, 
tn the case of our amateur licenses 
tefs first think aix>ut what the purpose 
ts of having licenses. Do we need "em? 

I renrtember wher? I posed this ques- 
tion to ttie FCC atXiut CB licenses. It 
tiad never occurred to them noi lo li- 
cense CBers, so they were spending 
mrllions doing it. I asked them why, 
T?tey didn't have any good answers 
other than they'd always licensed 
transmitters. And maybe the faci that 
there was a license would tend to 
make CBers obey the rules. Har-dt* 
har. It took awhile tor my reasoning to 
break tJirough the bureaucrat k; mincte, 
but eventually Ihey gave up on issuRig 
CB Jicenses. The sky did not fatL 
Sagged a tittle maybe. 

Okay, what purpose does a tiam li* 
cense serve in 1993? Well l^t's start 
with the exam . . . whal purpose does it 
serve? Perfiaps we can start by askir>g 
what do we really need to know to op* 
GfBte? Td go bacl( one more step in the 
obvious questioning and ask what is 
the purpose of the Amateur Radio 
'^ervice^ in 1993, except that the an- 
swer would just tend to embarrass us 
and might if the concept ever penetrat- 
ed the government, lead to some un* 
pleasant consequences. 

Lefs pretend that we're still able to 
fulfill some of our original respofisibili- 
ties. Let's pretend that we are still pay- 
ing our way in exchange for billk>ns of 
dollars In precious frequencies. It's 
been a generation since we invented or 
pioneered any new modes, so we can 
scratch that one. The military hasn't 
calted on us in time of war for 50 years, 
so we can scratch that one. Interna- 
tional friendships? Nope, scratch that 
one too. We have few friends. We're 
Ugfy Americans on the air Okay, we 
are still around in emergencies, so 
that's something. Of course our traffic 
nets are hardly beyond smoke- signal 
speeds when it connes to throughput in 
this day of 9600 baud. 

The technical part of our exam js 
geared to the days when we built and 
serviced our own equipment. These 
days we haven't a clue as to what is in- 
side, much less have the test equip- 
ment and expe hence lo try and lix it. 
What real purpose does the technical 
exam play these days? 

OJd- timers will remember back to 
1963 when the ABRL proposed whal 
was amusingly called Incentive Licens- 
ing. This was a proposal that everyone 
have to retake a technical exam before 
they cotild continue to operate on 
phone on any bands between I60m 
and 10m. This scared the living hell out 
of everyone. Take the exam again? f^ 
¥iray! Tens of thousands of hams put 
their ham gear up tor sale for anythiog 
ttiey could get foe it. This killed the mar- 
ket for new equipment so totally Itiat 
ham irrfustry sates dropped by 85% in 
1964. This, m turn, forced 85% of tire 
harr? dealers out of business, as well as 
visually ail of the manufacturers. Within 
a couple years we'd l^t over 700 ham 
stores, plus Hallicraflers, hianwnartund. 
National Radio, Millen, EF Johnson, 
Sartcer & Williamson. Central Etectron- 
tes, Gonset, Sideband Engineefs, Mylti- 
Elmac. Han^ey-We^is. Lakeshore Indus- 
tries, Thordarsoon. Stancor, EWico, and 
so on. Collins hung in tt>ere, but stopped 
aJI further product development, arjd 

Con^nued on page 84 



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Ted Brattstrom NHeYK, Honolulu 

HI Wayne, in your eternal challertge to 
gel hafie off Iheif rea/ ends and doing 
something new. I figured that I'd let you 
know wfsal rve been up lo in the two 
years since I recsTved my licens©: 

t>>ntaded" 106 DXCC cowntries on 
10 n^lers (60 conrirmed). 

Had great conversations with a 
number ol peopte. some of whlcfi I 
have even spoKen lo more than once! 

Spent a lot of time playing with 10 
imter SSB. 

Had cf)ats wHh U5Mia U6MIR, and 
KB6SIW, using an HT and either a 5/B 
whip on the car or a Ihree-element 
hand-held beam. (Hawaii and Midway 
are great for this — there are lew hams 
and rx^t many of ttiem are into satel- 
lites.) 

Used the WUm-l SBS to send 
rr^e^sages to people and vice versa. 

Set up and run TCP/IP on packet. 

Demonstrated amateur radio to two 
educatk>nai technology conferences. 

Ketped six ot my students get their 
ham licenses (mixed success here — \ 
left that school and few of them have 
used their privileges). 

Operated as NH6YK/ZL on 2m and 
TOcm in New Zealand, They hav© a 
thrill iant rule there that states: If you are 
a legal amateur and authorized at 
home on VHP and have your license 
with you. you may operate 2 meters 
and above for up to four weeks without 
filling out a forml Merely use your cafi 
and append portali^le ZL. Wouldn't It be 
great 11 we had t^iat rute? 

Operated NH6YK/KH4 when I spent 
seven weeks on Midway atoil last sum- 
n>er. Although I operated only 10 me- 
ters and G meters (a couple of CW con- 
tacts each on 15» 40^ aO), I made over 
800 contacts. Except on 6 meters, a 
contact usually lasted fong enough lo 
teti people a little about the island and 
what I was doing there, i was a volun- 
teer for the Fish and Wildlife Sen/ice, 
playing with goor>ey birds. 

Learnt (and am learning) about 6 
meters. Ffom Hawaii it is ALL DX, and 
fascinating. I had a borrowed d meter 
radk) and antenna on Midway and corv 
tacted Hve "countdes." Thai was fasd- 
nating. On Midway I used 100 watts; 
here at home I use only 2 watts, either 
into a dipote (at t>ome) or a bofrowed 
rour-efement quad (al school). Amaz- 
ingly, rve worttad VK4, VK7, FK8, T30, 
W3. JP6. VR6 and KI-16 witfi that pow- 
er. One time I used my lOm haft square 
antenna as ttie 6m antenr\a. It worked! 
One nice tliir>g about 6 is that people 
are very willir>g to help ttie neophyte. 

Went ort a Kalawao County DXpedi- 
6on. A smalt troupe of us flew over and 
set up for the weekeod. Since there are 
no active hams in the county, a for* 
mer/currenl Hansen's disease cotony, 
this was a relatively sought*aft©r con^ 
tact by some. I got to nrnke n^ first AD- 

6 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 



13 contacts tJiere. That was a lot of fun, 
and brought back the days I was sta- 
tion manager/operator for PEACES AT 
tn American Samoa and using ATS-3. 

Fm jtist starting to play wtth AO-21 . 
fve now managed to pick up the digital 
recording, and I'm going to have lo plug 
Ihe TNG back into the can>puter and 
see if I can decode me packetl ill try 
agam tonight to make a voice contact 
on It with the 70cm up/2m down. 

What's on the frontier (or me: up- 
grade — get the code owt of the way and 
gain access to those other frequendes; 
get mofe of my students licensed and 
operating; wofic on some radio astrono- 
my; find some money or scrounge an 
ATV system: Dlcewise* satellites. 

I'll be operating In V3l and Tl this 
summer, prot^ably just 6m and 2m FM, 
unless I can convince ttte YL (also li- 
censed) that a smalt lOm rig is reasor>- 
able amongst the cameras and scuba 
gear, and hopefully the E6B and charts 
so 1 can do a little ffying also. 

So. I try to keep up on the radio side 
of things. Oh, my real work is as a 
chemistry teacher al Pearl City Higt^ 
School. 

Wayne, keep it up. If nothing more, 
you get people stirred up enough to do 
something. Radio Fun and 73 are 
great. 

J. A. Fontana VE3MJF, Ottawa, 

Canada Tm a recently licensed ham 
(18 months) and have been altemately 
buying 73 and the '"other" magazine off 
the rack, trying to make up my mind. 
This month I decided on and sub- 
scribed to 73. 1 think, overallp that it has 
more that the "little guy" can relate to 
and it is not as esoteric as the other 
one. 

I enjoy your editorials. I'd like to see 
a monthly "For the Sake of Argumenf 
column in which you invite your readers 
to comment on something about the 
sport that troubles them, or needs flxin*, 
or whatever. Something stimulating. 

Goodk^aal. . . Wayne 

Guy DeMarco N2LWL, San Diego 
CA I voraciously read your rr^gazine 
from cover to cover You seem to be 
able to print some of tiie most buildabie 
{and usable) projects. Your department 
columns am top-nc^ch. 

But , , . (I'm sure you saw this conv 
ingi) I do have a gnpe, I am an Avionics 
Technician in the f^avy. Vm a bit put 
off by Wayne's moaning that us en- 
lEsted-type electronics specialists are 
*nol what we ysed to be.' I am finish- 
ing l^ my engneering degree in elec- 
Ironies arKj am an avid ham and teach- 
er of electronics. While there are bad 
technicians who cannot read a 
sctiematk;. please don'i classify tiiose 
of us who are proud of oor accompiish- 
menls with Ihe complacent service 

1993 



members. There's always one bad 
presidential candidate. One does not 
prejudice all. 

Yes. rm a cJub officer, an Elmer, a 
teacher and a happy and challenged 
ham. Yes, I'm a colfege student and a 
defender of our consiitutiofi. Therefore* 
please do not toss out ariecdotes about 
how awful the Navy technicians are. I'm 
sure didn't mean to stereotype us, but 
rd be reassured rf you could keep this 
fninfndt 

Tnai BOives KB8NDS, Richmond 
Ml Wayf>e. i wanted to write to tell you 
how much 1 have t>een enjoying 73 
MAgazino and the ham radto hobby I 
dis<x»vered alXHii a year and a half ago. 
I loc^ forward to pickihg up a copy of 
73 each month and, of course, Ihe first 
thing I turn to is your (X3<umn. I find that 
I agree with you most of the time (pretty 
scary), and H is partly becaLSe of your 
input that I have continued to expand 
my knowledge by getting into oomput- 
efS and packet radk). Ttie only thing i 
can't figure out Js why your remarks 
seem to cause such a vk)tenl, knee-jerk 
reaction in some people. It is as If they 
were indignant that anyone should 
awaken them from the stupor of snooz- 
ing in front of the TV. 

I caught your presentation at Dayton 
and found it thoroughly enlightening 
and thought provoldhg. 1 agree with you 
wholeheartedly about our alleged 
emergency service role and its overall 
lack of efficiency. I participated in my 
first RACES exercise last fall and was 
immediately convinced that there had 
to be a better way One month later I 
bought a TNC, a S10 dumd terminal 
and a secondhand 2 meter rig and 
voli^t 1 became a packeteer. Now all 1 
have to do is convince our local 
RACES group lo really get serious 
about developing an effective packet 
network. You have mentioned the 
ridiculous nature of the CW traffic- han- 
dling nets. J1I add to that by mentioning 
Ihe ridiculous nature of the phone-traf- 
fic-handiing nets^ All this "Would you 
please repeat, I didn't get the right 
counr and "Sorry, I couldn't copy you 
because somebody doubted" stuff has 
got to go. It's no wonder most amateura 
aren't involved in emergency communi- 
cations. The Speed of most NTS and 
emergency phone nets reminds me of 
when I was a kid playing my 78 rpm 
records on Ihe 33 speed. Things just go 
soooooo . . . sioooow. I coufdn't take 
enough No-Doz to deal with the pace of 
most nets. 

White at Dayton I spent some time 
ksbbying the major radk^ manufacturers 
with my idea of how they could improve 
their products and help out Itie amateur 
radio operator's emergency service 
rote. What I am proposing is tfiat they 
kfKXxporate into the design of every ra- 
dio a separate packet port on the rear 
ot the radio- This port woukJ be config- 
ured with Ihe same pin configuration for 
every radio manufacturer, and eventu- 
ally for every TNC. The radk) W04jld at- 
so be programmable to alkrw disabling 
of the microphone and speaicer audio 
during digital operation. It woukJ also 
allow the packet port to be disabled 



when on a phone frequency preset. 
This feature woukJ help to eliminate the 
problem of those who forget to turn off 
their TNC when changing frequency 
and consequently end up transmitting 
packet tones on a phone frequency and 
consequently end up transmitting pack- 
et tones on a phone frequency It would 
also aikiw one to work packet without 
having to find a way to eliminate the 
annoying "brap-brap' of the rig's speak- 
er. 

My r^son for propc^ir>g a standard- 
ized port configuration is that I have 
heard of too many instances where an 
emergency packet station has been 
rendered inoperative because the radio 
failed. While there were other radicra 
available for u^. none coukJ be used 
because of the lack of a proper inler- 
face cable. By having all rigs config- 
ured the same way we coukl increase 
our flexibiUfy in an err^engency sitijatioa 
My proposed dala port configuration 
vKiu\6 be the vefi^able B- (or 15-) pin 
terrele l>sub oonnectkm. Think of It — 
the cables woukJ be knexpensive (about 
three bucks), wkJely available, and by 
the virtue of the thumbscrews on the 
cable hood ttiey couldn't pull out of ihe 1 
back of the rig as my DIN connector is 
so fOTKJ of doing. How, t realize that all 
this practicality would Nkely cost our 
beloved radio manufacturers some rev- 
enue due to the lost sates of adapters 
and speciafty connectors, but I am con- 
vinced that they could probably come 
up witii some other scire me to gel our 
hard-earned doliars. 

In additbn, ail of these radios would 
be set up for 96D0 baud operation right 
out of the box. without the additional 
hassle ot modifications. I would also 
like dual-band rigs to come with the 
ability to run packet via the data port on 
one band, while being able to simulta- 
neously accommodate phone operation 
on the other band via the microphone 
jack and internal speaker. Or , . . the 
dual-band rig would be able to run 
packet on both bands at the same time 
and would be interactive with the TNG> 
via one of the data connector's pins, to 
allow remote operation of a digital 
crossband mode while using only one 
TNC. There would also be a +13 J volt 
terminal built into the connector in order 
to eliminate the need for a separate 
power supply for tiie TNC. Although it 
may sound like I have my head in the 
ckHJds with this radio design wish list, 
there is really no reason why all of 
these features could not be incorporal- 
ed into a rig with the technology that is 
TOW avai&at>le. 

The reason Ihat I am writing to you, 
Wayne, is to enlist your support for 
these design goate for our radio gear. It 
ts my hope that by incorporating these 
impfovements into our radKJS, more op- 
erators will be encouraged to get into 
digital modes. Hopefully, with some 
publicity, and amateur operator sup- 
port we wil soon see a new generation 
of rigs which are truly plug-and-play 
with respect to ttie up-and-coming digi- 
tal modes. 



Gf^at ideal. . . Wayne 





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*FCC type accepted for oofrtmeroiai 
service (hi-ljand and utif). 

• Rugged sxciter and PA, design^ecj for 
continuous duty. 

• Power out 20W 50-S4MH^; 15W {25W 
option avaif.) 143-174MH2; 15W 213- 
233 MHs; tow uhf; lOW 902'928MH2. 

• Available add-on PA'S up to 100W. 

• Six courtesy beep types, including 
two pleasant multi-tone bursts, 

• Open or closed access autopatch, 
toH-call restrict, auto-disconnect. 

• Reverse Autopatch, two types: 
auto-answer or ring tone on the air. 

• Putse (rotary) dial option available. 

• DTMF CONTROL: over 45 functions 
can be controlled by dtmf command. 
4-digit control oode for each function. 



• Owner can inhibit autopatch or re- 
peater, enable either open or closed 
access for repeater or autopatch, and 
enabie toll caite, reverse patch, Ker- 
chunk filter, Sfte alarm, aux rcvr, and 
otiier options. 

• Cw speed and tone, beep delay, tail 
timer, and courtesy beep type can l>e 
changed at any time by owrrer pass- 
word protected dtmf commands. 

•Auxiliary receiver input for control or 
cross linking repeaters. 

• Many buiFt-in diagnostic and testing 
functions using microprocessor. 

• Color coded LED's indicate status of 
all major functions. 

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pa, receiver, and controller 

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. R76 ECONOMY FM RCVR for 28-30, 50^54, 73-76 

w/D helical res or afc. ...Kits $129, w&t $219. 

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QRX 



Number 3 on your Feedback card 




Uh-Oh, Canada! 



Earlier this year, a majof snafu in our distri- 
bution system caused all Canadian subscrip- 
tion copies of 73 Amateur Radio Today \o be 
heJd up in a warehouse somewhere (presum- 
ably) close to the Arctic Circle. By the time we 
got a sled team together to retrieve the maga- 
zines, Canadian subscribers had missed a 
couple of issues. By now, all Canadian sub- 
scribers should have received all of the miss- 
ing issues. 

As a way of making amends to our ham ra- 
dio brethren (and sisteren) north of the border, 
all Canadian subscribers active on March 1, 
1993, will have two free Issues added to the 
term of their subscription. We know that this in 
no way makes up for the trauma of not receiv- 
ing your regular dose of 73 Amateur Radio To- 
day, but we hope you'll forgive us anyway. 

New Repeater Packet 
Ryles Proposed 

The FCC has taken a (ong-awaited step to- 
wards establishing new policy for ham stations 
involved in automatic message fonAfarding. 
The commission has adopted its Notice of 
Proposed Rulemaking — a measure which 
foreshadows new regulations which will hold 
repeater control operators harmless for any 
prohibited communications instantly retrans- 
mitted through the repeater. 

Under the new rules, only the originators of 
Instantly-retransmitted communJcations are to 
be held accountable for content violations 
flowing through a repeater. But when it comes 
to packet, the FCC wants to hold both the 
originating and first forwarding station li- 
censees responsible for prohibited communi- 
cations. The idea is that a packet message 
could be reviewed, but repeater traffic is in- 
stantaneous. 

Under the rules currently in effect, each am- 
ateur station is fully responsible for assuring 
that the contents of every transmission from 
his or her station complies with the rules- Gen- 
erally speaking, this was never a problem for 
hams until the advent of high-volume, high- 
speed digital message forwarding systems. 
TNX W5YI Report, Vol. IS, April IS 1993 

Details Released on 
219-220 MHz Access 

The FCC has fleshed out Its Notice of Pro- 
posed Rulemaking to " . . . provide a sec- 
ondary allocation for the Amateur Service In 
the 219 to 220 MHz band to be used for ama- 
teur auxiliary station (point*to-poin1) packet 
backbone and other amateur pqint-to-point 
fixed communications." In response to a peti- 
tion filed by the ARRL, the commission is 
proposing to allocate, on a secondary basis, 
the 219-220 MHz band for inner city wideband 

3 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1 993 



packet radio networks and other point-to-point 
fixed operations. 

According to the commission, this will (a) re- 
live the congestion in the 222-225 fwlHz band, 
(b) encourage the development and implemen- 
tation of a packet network that can be used lor 
emergency and national defense communica- 
tions, (c) facilitate connection of local packet 
nodes to form such a regional or nationwide 
network, and (d) provide spectnjm for explo- 
ration of new technology. TNX W5YI Report, 
Vol. 15, April 15 1993. 



ITU up to 176 



Three new countries from the former 
U.S,S,R. have joined the International 
Telecommunication Union as members so far 
this year. They are Georgia. Slovakia, and 
Kazakhstan. The ITU now has 176 member 
nations. T/VX W5YI Report, VoL 15, Jurie 1 
1993. 



Special Club Callsigns 
Approved 

The FCC has amended its Amateur Service 
rules to provide for volunteer organizations to 
administer a system designed to provide spe- 
cial callsigns to dub and military recreation sta- 
tions. This action was authorized by the 
Telecommunications Authorization Act of 1992. 
Organizations selected for the new system will 
be known as "Club and Military Recreation Sta- 
tion Call Sign Administrators." 

To qualify, the club must exist for the pur- 
pose of furthering the Amateur Service^ must 
be comprised of at least one percent of all 
hams licensed by the FCC, and must be capa- 
ble of serving as administrator in all places 
where the Amateur Sen/Ice is regulated by the 
FCC. 

Each administrator will be assigned a block 
of Iwo'by-three-letter callsigns. Dates for ac- 
cepting administrator applications have not yet 
been announced- TNX Westlirjk Report, No. 
650, May 27, 1993. 

Consolidating VE Programs 

Novices will soon be folded into the same li- 
censing examination process as everyone 
else, under an FCC measure adopted on May 
3rd. Currently {at press time), there are two dif- 
ferent examination programs in the Amateur 
Sen/ice. For years. Novices have been infor- 
mally tested by two volunteers. The Technician 
through Amateur Extra Class candidates have 
been tested under the VEC system—using 
teams of three accredited Volunteer Examin- 
ers. The three are managed by a Volunteer 
Examiner Coordinator who acts as a liaison 
between the VEs and the FCC. 

Apparently, the Commission likes the way 

that the VEC program is going, because the 



rate of errors has plummeted and the system 
is saving taxpayers an estimated $1 million 
each year. The Novice testing system has an 
estimated error rate of nearly 10 percent and 
data collection has also been a weak point. 
The commission also hopes to minimize ffaud 
by consolidating the VE programs. 

The new FCC rules take effect July 1 , 1993, 
ptacing responsibility for the preparation and 
administration of the Novice Class operator li- 
cense examinations under the VEC system. 
The commission also has decided to allow for 
recovery of out-of-pocket costs for coordinate 
ing and administering such examinations. TNX 
W5YI Report, Vol. 15, June 1 1993. 

Senator Extols Amateur 
Service 

A Joint Resolution (S.J.90) has been intio- 
duced in the United States Senate recognizing 
the achievements of radio amateurs. Senator 
Charles Robb of Virginia drafted the bill, which 
calls for a national policy supporting amateur 
radio. 

The resolution urges adoption of rules and 
regulations that encourage the use of new 
technologies within the Amateur Sen/ice. » al- 
so requests that any regulations which are 
necessary at any level of government be craft- 
ed in ways that encourage ham radio as a 
public benefit. TNX Westlink Report, No. 650, 
May 27, 1993, 

French Launch Orbiter 



A new satellite has joined the amateur radio 
community, Sponsored by the French Radio 
Amateur Club de TEspace (RACE), the AR- 
SNE (UO-22) satellite was sent into orbit from 
an Ariane-4 rocket right on schedule on May 
12 at 00:56 UTC. It was launched from the Eu- 
ropean Space Agency's spaceport in Kourou, 
French Guiana, on the northern coast of South 
America 

After all the minor bugs are worked out of 
the satellite, the ARSENE will be open to pack- 
et traffic from all radio amateurs worldwide. 
The orbiting digipeater is equipped with an up- 
link frequency of 435.100; downlink 2446.5 
MHz. TNX W5YI Report, VoL 15, JurjB 1, 199$. 

I Pli^ ■ ■ ■ 

... to all our contributors! You can reach 
us by phone at (603) 92^1 — 0058. or by mail at 
73 Magazine, Route 202 North, Peterborough 
NH 0345S. Or get in touch with us on Com- 
puServe ppn 70310,775; MCI Mall 
"WGEPUS"; or the 73 BBS at {603} 924— 
9343 (300—2400 bps), 8 data bits, no parity, 
one stop bit. News items that don't make it in- 
to 73 are often put in our other monthly publi- 
cation. Radio Fun. You can also send news 
items by FAX at (603) 924—9327. 




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■6^. 



Number 4 on your Feedback cand 



A Decade of Packet 

An anthology of 7 3 packet radio articles from 1983 to 1993. 



It may seem hard to believe^ but the 
new technology we call packet ra- 
dio has been gaining popularity with 
hams for some 10 years now! Regu- 
lar readers of 73 know this magazine 
has given the subject intensive cov- 
erage. Not only will you find Jeff 
Sloman NlEWO's monthly column, 
"Packet & Computers." but you'll 
also find a compendium of construe- 



by Charles Warrington WA1 RZW 

tion articles, product reviews, and a 
few surprises — ranging from back- 
pack units to space shuttle communi- 
cators. 

If you've waited 10 years to get in- 
to packet, perhaps this little treatise 
is just the boot your system needs. 
Here you will find a handy-dandy in- 
dex of 73 packet articles, and a brief 
abstract of each. We have also in- 



cluded separate listings of packet 
columns and packet product reviews- 
Now you can dig out whatever infor- 
mation you need for a painless pack- 
et primer If* on the other hand, 
packet is already part of your ham 
radio repertoire, we hope you will 
find this to be a valuable resource 
which will help to enhance your 
knowledge and ftiture enjoyment. 



Chronological Listing 

of 73 Packet Articles 



"Join (he Packet-Radio Revolution. Get er- 

ror-free* high-speed communicauons. Packet ra- 
dioes chief architect V^AIQXD, explains what It 
is and how \i works." (by Lyle Johnson, Sept. 
1983, p. 19.) **This article is writicn to give the 
reader a practical look at packet radio, including 
a practical descriptLon of the equipment needed 
to use this new communications mode. . . . 
While the reading should prove interesting, the 
application of packet radio in your hamshack is 
the primary goal. 



*t 



^'Join the Packet Radio RevoJutJonf Part 2. 

Warm up your soldering irons. This part offers 
the nuts and bolls of building your own TNC*' 
(by Lyle Johnson WA7GX, Oct. 1983, p.20.) 
The author describes the Tucson Amateur Pack- 
el Radio (TAPR) Terminal Node Controller 
(TNC)* and gives enough detail for the home- 
brew artist to build one, 

"'Join the Packet Radio Revolution, Part 3* 
DonU mess up. Packet protocols and proceduies 
are all-impoFiant, says WA7GXD, and hc*s been 
ri|hr so far/' (by Lyle Johnson, Jan. 1984, p36.) 
In the final installment of his three-part series, 
WA7GXD illustrates the formal rules governing 
packet information transfer and tips for practical 
application. 

"GLB Update** {QRX, March 1985. p.7.) 
"Packcicers using GLB TNCs, in particular 

those using them as digipeaters, should contact 
GLB for an update of their software." This short 
item includes where to send PROMs for update. 

"Packet Places'^ (QRX, May 1 985. p.8.) This 
shon iicm presents a list of frequencies where 
you can find packet activity at various locations 
around the country, 

"TAPR Two-Toiie" (QRX, Sept. 1985, p.7.) 
This short i[cm offers a commercially -made cab- 
inet for the TAPR TNC-1 from Heathkit. 

"Packet Pankr (QRX, Nov. 1985, p,8.) 
This short article outlines packet radio's rapid 

10 75 Amateur Radio Today • August. 1993 



growth and some recent software developments. 

"Packet Reprieve'' (QRX, May 1986, p.7.) 
Short news item explains that, for the present 
time, third-party traffic sent via packet radio is 
legai^ — per the FCC, 

"TNC Fix" (QRX, May 1986, p.7.) Item con- 
tains a modification which c^n be performed on 
a TAPR TNC-2 or an AEA PK-80 to prevent in- 
terference. 

**A Packet Prfan^. Rrsl you*ve gol to know 
the lingo," (by Cwyn Reedy WIBL, Aug. 1986, 
p.28.) in this comprehensive article, the author 

discusses why packet is becoming so popular. 
He compares packet's advantages and disadvan- 
tages with those of its technological ancestors. 

"How to iVfake Friends at 1200 Baud. 

W2JU's guide to AX,25 etiquette." (by Norm 
Sternberg, Aug. 1986, p.34.) *This article offers 
a few collected thoughts and suggestions about: 
bandwidth of transmitted signals, transmitter 
keying characieristics and time constants, TNC 
parameter values (especially timing), beacons, 
and channel courtesy and good manners." 

Ttecisiw Packet Tuning. Build the ulti- 
mate digital tuning indicator for packet or RT- 
TY." (by John W. Langcr WB20SZL Aug, 1986, 
p.40,) Includes the schematic, circuit board de- 
sign, parts list, etc. for constructing this projecL 

"So You Want To Be A Sysop? It's not as 
easy as it looks," (by Jon Pearcc W2MNF, Aug. 
1986, p.50*) "This article describes some of the 
trials, tribulations, frustrations, and rewards of 
becoming a packet BBS sysop," The article is 
also useful reading for the user, and includes in- 
structions for smooth system operation. 

^'Birds W Bauds. Satellites are going digital 
in a big way— Five international experts com- 
bine to define our place in space/' (by Harold 
Price NK6K, Tak Okamoto JA2PK1, Hanspeter 
Kuhlen DlYQ, Peter Guelzow B20S, Donald 
Moe DJ0HaKE6MN, Aug. 1986, p.58.) This 
article discusses the frontiers of ham satellite 
technology and provides hints on how to take 
advantage of these advancements. 



"Connect Alarm! Lei your TNC call you 
when it has something to say."* (by Louis I. Hut- 
ton K7YZZ, Aug. 1986, p.66.) A quickie con* 
stniciion project which, when attached to your 
TNC, sounds an alarm wherever there ts a con- 
nect to your packet system, 

^Siimval Tramiiig For Moimf^mtop Dig^ 
peaters. A ROM with a vicwT (by George 
Rammer WB6RAL, Aug, 1986, p.68.) "This ar- 
ticle describes a network of mountaintop digital 
repeaters covering the state of California," It in- 
cludes network goals, trials and tribulations, and 
a look at the future. 

'beyond Level Two, High-level networking 
comes to packet radio." (by Phil Kam KA9Q, 
Aug, 1986, p.740 "This article is for the user 
who is ready to take the advanced packet 
course. It discusses issues at the center of the 
next round of technical development." 

"And ir That Wasn't Enough . . . NK6K 
lakes questions from the audience." (by Harold 
Price, Aug, 1986, p.SO.) Five pages of packet 
questions and answers. 

"On The Shell" (by Harold Price NK6K, 
Aug. 1986, p.86.) An amateur packet bibliogra- 
phy. A good source for further reading, 

*Tackel Lunacy^ (QRX Oct 1986, p.7.) In 
this short news item, W31W1 has successfully 

bounced packets ofiF the rrtoon. 

"G/ACK" (QRX, Feb, 1987, pJj Short ' 

news item features a breakthrough for packet ra- | 
dio in Great Britain, 

"Packet RATS, WA3DNM's Resume-After- 
Transmil Scanner lets your IC-27A do double 
duty." (by David C. Wolovitz, May 1987, pJO.) 
This construction aniclc allows you to upgrade 
your IC-27A by connecting this home-brew Re- 
sumc-After-Transmil Scanner to your digipeater, . 

*The Digital Novice, K9EI covers the basics 
and terminology of ham's digital world — from 
Samuel Morse's basement to packet proficien- 
cy." (by Jim Grutte, June 1987, p.28.) The au- 
thor presents options for the t)eginn^ who has 



MFJ Menu Driven Memory Keyer 



"IM 




k., , . 1 r~~ 



L* 



J Ri nn fsj J] 





i^anrt MF^4i} 




$ 



99 



MFJ492 MFJ's new Menu Driven 

Qg Memory Kcycr'^ lets you 
immediately enjoy your 
MFJ^92 without reading an 
instruction mainal — tbere's no keypad, no 
complex sequences, notliing to remember. 

You simply select a menu by pressing a 
button. An LED lights to show you which 
menu is active. You select a feature by 
pncssjng a feaiufe button. It's as easy 
as using a comfMiter touch screen! 
Each menu Is cleariy printed on the 
front panel - there's no confusion. 

From the menu you can save and 
play messages . , . decrement serial 
numbers . . . set speed, weight, 
sidelone . . . enter iambic, semi-auto, 
handkey, message queue, paddle 
command itiodcs , . . turn on/off 
sideionc, transmitter tune, keying 
output on/off . . . select iamoic A or 
B. reverse paddle, Morse trainer and 
store staning serial number. 

Vou can bypass the menu by key- 
ing in simple two later commands. 

uTien you select a feature the 
lte\er tells vou its status in CW, 

Memuri expandable to over 8000 characters 

You can expand the MFJ^92 standard 192 
iiaracters in four soft sectored message 
Tiemories to over 8000 characters in eight 
nessa&e memories by simply plugging m the 
MFJ'S), SI 4.95, Memor\' Expansion Kit 
Memories backed-up by lithiuni battery. 

Smooth Speed Control 
Matching your CW speed to a QSO is 
>est done by ear. The MFJ-492 lets you 
natch speed by turning a knob or by using 
VtFJ's Analog Set™. In this mode, pressing 
he dot or dash paddle smoothly increases or 
lecreases speed from 5 to 100 WPM, You 
:an also customize the range of the speed 
tnob tbr precise ointrol, _ 



Powerful Morse Code Tminer 

A powerful Morse code 
trainer lets jou practice or 
teach ctxie m Famsworth or 
iKirma) mode. 

You can select letters, 
numbers, punctuation marks or 
prt)signs or any combination for 
pmcticc. You can use standard 5 
character groups, more realistic random I t<j 8 
character groups or select specific six character 
sets to work on. 

You can instant-replay a random session to 
dhtck your copy. 

You can store custom code practice 
sessions in memory for later replay. 

Here*s what you can do 
with Message Memories • • * 
Bt^sage Repeat""^ lets you repeat 
messages contmously. You can also insert 
pauses within a message. This lets you call 



Menu Driven Memorv Kever/Bencher Paddle Combo 

MFJ490 The best of all CW worids - nearly all ihe 

$ ^ ^£^1.06 features of the MFJ -492 Meiiu Dnven Memory Keyer 
■ 0"fr in a compact configuration that fits right on the Bencher 
iambic paddle! You can buy the combination or just 
the keyer for your Bencher. 

You get message memories. Morse trainer, 
sidetonc, automatic serial numbering — plus 
moa*. 5x3x5*/^ in. Uses 9 volt battery » 12 
VDC or I to VAC with MFM312B, 
S12,95 MFJ-490, $164.95, Kcver Bendier 
Combo. MFja90X, $109.95. Keyer only. 
Memor> expansion kit not available. 




CQ. listen for an answer and then resume 
calling CQ by pressing a single button. 
Each pause can be up to an Hour — it 
makes a perfect Automatic Beacon. 

Message CalF"^ calls other messages and 
Message Queue plavs messages in seouence. 
You can store QTH, rig, weather ami other 
information in separate message meinories 
and play these in any sequence you want! 

Message Edit'^^ lets you correct mistakes 
while recording a message -- you don't have 
to start all over if you make a mistake. 

While you're playing a memor> message 
you can break-in at any time and insert 
comments from your paddle and then resume 
playing your message. 



You can insert cxxnmands within a storal 
message. As you pla)" it bcw:k, these 
(Ximnwids will execute. For example, you 
can insert automaticaUy incrementing serial 
numbers, replay messages amtinuously. call 
and play other messages, insert pauses or 
combine all these in one message! 

WTien you play your messages back, 
automatic word and character spacing make 
yoin' CW sound like perfect code. Or you 
can adjust the spacing for a nK>rc distinctive 
individual sound that DX statit)ns will ntHice. 

Plus more . , . 

You get contest serial numbering (0-9999) 
with auto-increment. You can send an N for 9 
and a T for to save time. 

MFXs Anaiog Sef^* lets you adjust speed, 
weight ami sideione just as smoottiJy as a 
knob " dot/dash pailles are ased as an 
up/dowTi control. 
You get built-in sidetone^ speaker, 

fent panel volun^e contml knob and 
adjustable 300-3000 Hz tone. 

You can use automatic, semi- 
automatic bug or handkey modes, 
reverse dot/dash paddles, select 
iambic A or B or non-iambic modes. 

You can adjust weight from 5 to 
95 % and compensate Tor traasmitter 
distortion with a special tiansmitter 
compensation feature. 

A tunc feature lets you k^ your 
traasmitter for tuning. 

You can turn off the keying output 
so you can practice widiout keying 
your traiBnrutter or unplugging your 
keyer. 

Ymi get direct and grid block keying. 
Keys solid state and tul>e rigs. 

Special MARS characters are recognized 
and can be used in messages. 

Uses 9 volt battery, 12 VDC or 110 VAC 
with MFJ-I312B, S12.95. 6'/2x2^/ix6?4 in. 

MFJ-8(K $14.95, Memory Expaasion Kit, 
Bxpands your MFJ-492 to 8000 characters 
and adds four additional message. 

MFJ-492X, SI 14.95. MFJ492 with 
MFJ-80 Memory Expansion Kit instaUed, 

MFJ-78, S19.95. Full function Remote 
Control puts message memories and menu 
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ivirj-^ Hie MFM92 plus these . . . 

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characters of memory. 

it Plu^-in a standard IBM compatible 
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:ey board keyer. All commands, functions 
nd memories can be done through the 
.eyboard. Plus you get additional message 
nemorics and feamres. 

it Builf'in serial pon lets you combine 
[le power of your computer with the 
ylFJ-493. Use your computer to compose, 
»uild and store a complete librafy of often 
sed messages, generate custom code 
■ractice sessions and exams and download to 
4FJ-493. control your keyer, automatically 
ei up keyer for different operators 
ontcst, display, edit and save message 
lemories and keyer settings p 



Memory Kever^VKevboard 

As you key in CW, ASCU is also being 
sent to the serial port. You can use your 
computer to record an entire transmission, 

it !n addition to the powerful Morse 
Code Trainer, in the MFJ-492 you get . , . 

. , , an FCC Kxam Sinmlamr that sends 
random QSOs exactly like tlie FCC exams. 
When you can copy these random QSOs, 
you're ready to pass your exam and upgr4ide! 

• , . MFJ's QSO Simulator makes 
learning Morse code really fun. It's like 
making real on-the-air contacts. You can 
answer a CQ or call a station and enjoy a 
nice a QSO, Youl! gel operating experience 
while boosting your code speed, 

, » - a new Word Recognition Mode gives 
you hundreds of commtmh' used words in 
amateur radio for you to practice reccj^iizing 
€ti6m words instil of individual letters. With 
practice you can learn to copy words in your 
head without writing it down and carry on an 
entire CW conversation without paper -* just 
like the pros. 

Compact IViyaViKeVA inches. Use 12 VDC 
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not yet experienced any of ham^s digital com- 
munication nfiodes. 

**Big Time Packet, KITE can control a 
packet station from his desk or anywhere in the 
world — with a little help from his computer" 
(by Bradshaw B. Luplon, Jr., July 87, pA4.) 
The author describes how his passion for packet 
has made his workday lunch hour (and his cor- 
respondence) move along quickly. 

*The Year 2000— Packet Radio Then and 
Now. The author predicts packet radio of the fu- 
ture^ — using today's technology." (by Bill Ash- 
by K2TKN, Aug. 1987, p.24.) The author gazes 
into his crystal ball and attempts to describe the 
stare of the art in the next millennium, 

"AI on Packet?" (by William McMullan 
KE5L, Aug. 1987* p.29.) The author presents 
his 'TRON" computer program, which will run 
your packet station automatically but does not 
actually use AI (artificial intelligence). 

''U,S. Packet Digipeaters/PBSs" {by Don 

Bennett K4NGC, Aug. 1987, p.33.) A list of 
packet digipeaters and packet bulletin boards 
reported to be on packet radio in the United 
States. 

"IC-2AT Packet Interface. Use 

WBSWSV's external PTT circuit to get on 
packet with an IC-2AT and an MFJ-1270." (by 
Wayne Eleazer, Aug. 1987, p.49.) This article 
shows you how to build a circuit which will al- 
low the IC-2A to key up when connected to an 
MFJ^1270TNC, 

"On the Road and On the Air. Tales of a 
high-tech nomad." (by Steven K. Roberts 
KA80VA, Feb- 1988, pJL) The author devel- 
oped a high -lech bicycle equipped with packet 
radio, among other things. He also discusses 
life on the road with his bike, 

"Emergency 'Pocket' Packet* Instant pack- 
et in your jacket/* (by David McLanahan 
WAIFHB, Apr. 1988, p-250 A complete 
portable emergency packet station utilizing the 
ICOM 02-X the GLB Kl-L TNC, and the NEC 
8201 A laptop, 

"Bicyde-Mobile Packeteering. It's time to 
pull packet radio out of its infancy!*' (by Steven 
K. Roberts N4RVE, Apr. 1988, p.4L) The au- 
thor picks up where he left off in his February 
article. 



"The Care and Feeding of a PBBS. Timely 
tips for packet bulletin board users (Part 1)." 
(by David McLanahan WAIFHE, June 1988, 
p.23.) "One of the perks of working packet is 
being able to access one or more of the Packet 
Bulletin Board Systems springing up all over 
the country. "" The author teaches you how to 
take advantage of these PBBSs. 

"Care and Feeding of a PBBS. Timely tips 
for packet bulletin board users (Part 2)." (by 
David McLanahan WAIFHB, July 1988, p,60,) 
The author continues where he left off in Part 1 
with some final tips for packet BBS users. 

"Digicom>64. A software-based packet ra- 
dio system for the Commodore 64." (by Barry 



N. Kutner, M,D. W2UP, Aug. 1988. p.2Z) A 
cheap 'n* easy packet radio system, including 
circuit descriptions and schematics, 

"Packets Full of Pixels. Packet Scan Ama- 
teur Television." (by Robert G. Pratt 
WD8AQX, Oct. 1988, p. 10.) The author has 
found a way to combine amateur radio, comput- 
ers, and video into "... a fun-filled super hob- 
by that results in very slow-scan television im- 
ages sent across town or around the world via 
packet radio," 



«£1 



'Ham Call Directory on Pacliet'' (QRX, 
Nov. 1988, p.9.) A short new.^ item. A Virginia 
ham (no pun intended) has compiled a CD 
ROM database of US amateurs which is acces- 
sible by packet radio. 

"Scotland" (QRX, Dec. 1988, p.9.) Tiny 
news item. "Packet digi-peating has come to 
Scotland." 

"Packet Tuning Indicator. Dead-on HF 
packet tuning for SI 5." (by Ronald B. Koester 
W2EKY, Dec. 198S, p.24.) This easy and inex- 
pensive construction project includes the 
schematic, circuit board design, and parts list, 

"TCM 3105 Modem for the Digicom>64, 

A mini-modem for 1200 baud packet." (by 
Craig Rader N4PLK, John Krohn KJ4GR Sam 
Baine W4KUM, and Mike Zinicola WD4PVS, 
Feb. 19S9, p.42.) This project is a modem for 
the Digicom>64 TNC Emulator program that 
works exclusively on 10 meters^ VHR and UHF 
at 1200 baud Circuit board design, parts place- 
ment diagram, and schematic are provided for 
this small and inexpensive home-brew. 

"Getting High on Paclcet Excellent advice 
for getting on HF packet," (by Brian Lloyd 
WB6RQN, Feb. 1989, p.50.) This "how to" ar^ 
tide gets you started on HF packet including 
theory and practical operating suggestions. 

"The Nel/ROM-NordLink Question, A 

case of software piracy?" (by Neil Shapiro 
WB2KQI, June 1989, pJ4.) A discussion of a 
legal battle over software rights which an 
American firm claims were violated by a Ger- 
man firm. The software in question was de- 
signed to enhance packet radio data transfer. 

"Packet Racket Up Zipper. Automatically 
turns off your rig's speaker during packet opera- 
tion." (by Michael J. Geier KBIUM, Oct. 1989, 
p. 13.) "The Lip Zipper switches the audio out- 
put of your rig from an externa! (or internal) 
speaker to the audio input of your TNC. In ad- 
dition, you can use it to switch the rig's mike 
input between the mike and the TNC." 
Schematic and parts list are included 

*«etting Up a Packet Radio Station. An ex- 
cellent guide for beginners and veterans alike." 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Oct. 1989, p. 14.) 
This is a step-by-step guide for the packet be- 
ginner which discusses equipment selection and 
how to configure the system. 

"My SX-64 Runs Digicom! Low-cost pack- 
et solution for your portable C-64 " (by Ted 
Drude KA9ELV, OcL 1989, p.24.) *^rf you 
couldn't ilgure out how to get Digicom running 



on your SX-M portable, you can get the com- 
plete stoiy here, including how to modify Digi- 
com modems to work with the SX-64, and how 
to make the proper internal connections," 

**DigitaI Dreams. We have not yet begun to 
packet!" (by Bdale Garbee N3EUA, Oct. 1989, 
p,28.) This article describes ways in which you 
can "turbo-charge" your packet station. The au- 
thor discusses a variety of frequency options, 
networks, and software advancements to help 
the packeteer reach his or her potential. 

"Let the TNC Work Wliile Your PC 
Sleeps. Give your older TNC personal mailbox 
capability — ^with no hardware changes!" (by 
David Bartholomew WB6WKB, Oct, 1989, 
p.30.) This brief article outlines a procedure by 
which you can "turn your packet answering ma- 
chine on." 

"Put Your IC-22S on Packet, Dust H off 
and dedicate it to 2iii packet!" (by Michael S. 
Dooley KE4PC, Oct, 1989, p.3l.) "Are you 
tired of tying up your synthesized radio on 
packet? If you have access to an ICOM IC-22S. 
a fast and easy fix will get it on this fascinating 
mode." 

"KAM Box. Packet and WEFAX for the 
lazy." (by Joe Davidson N4AQG, Oct. 1989, 
pJ2J The author tells you how to nriodify the 
Kantronics UTU to allow you to take advantage 
of packet and weather fax modes. "These alter- 
ations have made a very nice operating interface 
just a little more friendly." 

"One-Chip RS-232 for the C-64. Easy and 
inexpensive RS-232/TTL level interface." (by 
Mike Kabala KB0CDQ, Oct. 1989, p.34.) The 
author explains how you can build an interface 
to convert all the Commodore's signals from 
TL levels to levels that agree witli tlie EIA stan- 
dard. PC layout and parts list are included, 

"Packet Radio in Japan* Bits of informa- 
tion on packet in the land of the Rising Sun." 
(by David Cowhig WAILBR Oct. 1989, p38.) 
A news roundup of packet radio in a country the 
size of California with K6 million hams. 

"Standardizing the Radio/TNC Interface. 

Patch any rig to any TNC or data controller in 
just a few moments!" (by Brian Lloyd 
WB6RQN, Oct. 1989, p.40.) The author de- 
scribes the perfect interface (project) for that 
packet-rat ham who has collected five different 
radios and five different TNCs. 

"Packet Radio and Higii-Tecl] Nomadics. 

A sneak preview of the Winnebiko 3." (by 
Steven K. Roberts N4RVE, Oct. 1989, p.48.) 
The author is the inventor of computerized » 
ham-radio-equipped bicycles which he has ped- 
aled across the United States. This article exam- 
ines his third generation bike, which is packet 
equipped. 

"Improve your TNCs DCD circuit* Make 
your DCD faster and more discriminating." (by 
Eric Gusiafson N7CU Oct. 1989, p.50.) "The 
DCD circuiU^y for nearly all currently available 
TNCs are deficient for use on a radio channel 



M 73 AmatBur Radio Today • August, 1 993 



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Some are belter than others, but most can be 
dramatically improved/* A schemalic is includ- 
ed for this project, 

"TexNet Packet- Switching Network- An 

overview of a highly successful and efficient 
packet radio network," (by Greg Jones 
WD51VD, OcL 1989, p.540 TexNet is "an inex- 
pensive, multi resource, four port, high-speed 
'backbone/ daiagram-based amateur packet 
switching system," The author presents an 
overview of a very fast 9600 baud amateur net- 
work. 

"Amateur Packet Networking* Going be- 
yond just AX.25 , . , " (by Brian Lloyd 
WB6RQN, Oct. 1989, p.60.) 'This article cov- 
ers some networking concepts, explains where 
the original popular ham packet protocol, 
AX.25, falters, and compares and contrasts the 
more popular networking protocols/* 

'TCP/IP for the Macintosh. Now this pow- 
erful PC runs one of packet radio's hottest net- 
working systems!" (by Doug Thorn N60YU 
and Dewayne Hendricks WA8DZP, Oct. 1989, 
p.68.) Transpon Control Protocol/Internet Pro- 
tocol can provide hams with many capabilities 
never before available in packet communica- 
tion. The article includes an address where you 
can purchase the program on disk for $5. 

"HF Packet Ibtiing Aid. Spot-on tuning ev- 
ery time!" (by John Reed W6I0J, Oct. 1989, p. 
80.) Build this easy to use packet signal synthe- 
sizer. The schemalic and pans list are included. 

"The Quickchangcr, This makes mixed- 
modc/band operation a breeze/' (by Howard E. 
Cann KA3MRX, Del. 1989, p.840 This easy 
home-brew is "an interface box that lets you 
switch a single mike, a TNC, a phone patch, 
and two speakers, all to either HF, VHF, or off " 

"The Great San Francisco Quake '89. 

Hams fulfill the purpose of the amateur radio 
service." (by Bill Pasternak WA61TF, Feb. 
1990, p. 18.) Digij>e3ting Packeteers prevailed in 
the big earthquake's emergency communica- 
tions. 

"Grant for HF Packet Research" {QRX, 
Apr. 1990, p.70 Tiny news item. "A team will 
investigate the benefits of diversity reception 
for HF packet radio , . , " 

"SAREX-90. Ham-in-space shuttle mis- 
sions.'' (by Tom Clark W3IWI, Ron Parise 
WA4SIR, and Bill Tynan W3X0, May 1990, 
p.9.) This comprehensive article on hearing and 
working the astronauts includes a section ou 
packet. 

*^SatelLife Packet." (QRX, June 1990, pJ.) 
Experts in Boston and Moscow are teaming up 
to save lives by bringing lightning-fast medical 
data to third world doctors via packet. 

**TNC Connect Alarm. Did anyone call 
when r was out?" (by Mark Schmidt 
DA1AUAM59EGA, June 1990, p. 14.) This easy 
home-brew is like an answering machine for 
your packet radio siation. 

^TK-232 Connect Memory. Lets you know 
what you missed, (by William Bleher W8GQL, 
July 1990, p.44,) This simple contruction pro- 

1 4 73 Amateur Radio Today • August^ 1 993 



ject lets you know if a connection occurred to 
your packet siation when you were away. 

"SAREX Packet Hints," (QRX, Nov. 1990, 
p,7,) Advice for successful shuttle communica- 
tions including using the proper callsign. 

^Tortable Backpack Packet Station: Be- 
hold the Back Packet! Go take a hike with pack- 
et radio." (by John Trent Adams lvrW6H, Dec. 
1990, p. 9.) You can "... provide reliable com- 
munications at a moment's notice from any 
weird location . . . " with this innovative pro- 
ject. **The BackPackct consists of a PacComm 
Micropower-2 TNC, an Epson PX-8 laptop, a 
Yaesu FT-203 HT, a 7 amp-hour sealed lead- 
acid battery all encased in a sturdy Ensolite 
laminate in a J an sport day pack," 

"Upgrade your HD-404«* KISS your Heath 
D-4040 and keep X.25 too!" (by Mark Dieter 
N2BL1, Dec, 1990, p. 19,) "Very few parts are 
required lo install this upgrade in your TNC: ihe 
TAPR KISS TNC 1 EPROM, a good quality 
DPDT switch, and a few strands of small-gauge 



wire 



•tj 



"WlAW Packet BBS." (QRX, Jan. 1990, 
p.7.) "The ARRL has reinstated its packet radio 
BBS, WlAW-4, after more than a year off the 



air. 

"Packet with the Microsats. The secrets of 
success." (by David Medley KI6QE, March 
1991, p.9,) A seasoned ham (sorry) shares his 
favorite tidbits for getting the most out of orbit- 
ing packet. 

"The End of Packet," (QRX, April 1991, 
p.7.) A chill was sent through the packet radio 
community when eight amateurs were fined 
$300 each in connection with a political mes- 
sage. This appears to be the first time the FCC 
has penalized intermediate packet station opera- 
tor.s for a message they did not originate. 

**New Rules Sought"(QRX, May 1991, p J.) 
"The FCC has accepted a petition requesting 
that primary responsibility for the content of all 
automatically reU'ansmitted signals be placed on 
the originating station." 



"Packet Challenge" (QRX, July 1991, p,7.) 
This is another update on the FCC fines for au- 
tomatic packet message handlers. 

"Poor Man^s Packets A complete software 
TNC for PC compatiblesr' (by R Kevin Feeney 
W2EMS and Andy Payne N8KE1, Aug. 1991, 
p.8.) This home-brew uses your PC to do the 
work of the TNC. The software is on disk in- 
stead of ROM. "Using this design you can build 
a simple, inexpensive packet communications 
system."' It's a good way to get your feet wet in 
packet. 

'*The Lappack. Extended portable power for 
your laptop computer/' (by Brian Kassel 
W5VB0, March 1992, p.52.) This construction 
project provides the 9.2 VDC required by some 
laptops by convening power from a 12VDC 
source. 

"Packet on the Mac, Connect with the 
world without a TNC." (by Dexier Francis 
KD6CMT, Oct, 1992, p,8,) This article has all 
the information you need to build a TacketMac 



Modem/ which will eliminate the need for an 
external TNC. A PC board is available* 

"Packet Radio and Emergency Communi- 
cations. Public safely enters tlie digital world." 
(By Richard Ferguson KA0DXM, Oct. 1992, 
p.42.) A comprehensive look at emergency 
packet is presented, including what you'll need 
to know lo start a successful ham radio emer- 
gency group. 

"ARRL Kills Automatic HF Packet For- 
warding;* (QRX, Nov. 1992, p.7.) In this short 
news item, the league has decided to accept the 
Digital Committee^s recommendation that unat- 
tended HF packet forwarding should not be al- 
lowed. 

'1ARU Region 2 Meeting Formally Recog- 
nizes HF Packet" (QRX, Dec. 1992, p,6,) 
"The International Amateur Radio Union Re- 
gion 2 Conference was held . , . and the deci- 
sions will definitely have an impact on the fu- 
ture of high-frequency fully-automatic packet 
radio forwarding worldwide.** 

"Packet Radio Equipment Needed for 
Poland Center," (QRX, March 1993, p.8.) The 
American Council for Polish Culture is seeking 
new or used packet equipment to enhance train- 
ing opportunities. 

''Digital Satellite Gateway Nodes. How to 

get on OSCAR 22 with an HT." (by John A. 
Hansen WA0PTV, March 1993, p. 19.) "The 
satellite gateway node system is a fairly new 
development in packet radio satellites. It per- 
mits region-wide access by hams with anything 
from very modest equipment to the latest in dig- 
ital satellite technology." 

'Tarlable Packet Digipeater for Emergen- 
cy Service/' (by John Neeley K6YDW, June 
1993, p. 160 Build this highly portable, battery 
powered digipeater. Parts list, schemaiics, and 
PC board design are all included. 



Chronological Listing of 
73 Packet Columns 



"NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, May 
1986, p.86.) in this fmi packet column, ihe au- 
thor introduces you to some packet radio defi- 
nitians and reviews the history of packet. He al- 
so explains why packet is virtually error-free, 

"NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, June 
1986, p.76.) The author continues his discus- 
sion of packet basics including a discussion of 
the costs involved in getting started. 

"NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, July 
1986, p.88.) A discussion of the new packet 
products offered at Dayton this year. 



"NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, SepL 
1986, p. 88.) Packet in other lands is dis- 
cussed, including Japan, South Africa, and the 
UK. 

*^NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, Oct. 
1986, p. 60.) The author discusses baud rate 
and how it is related to transceiver delay time. 

"NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, Nov. 
1986, p.740 The author addresses a variety of 




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subjects including moon bounce on 432 MHz 
and third-party traffic in relation to packet oper- 
atton. 



"NK6K>Packer* (by Harold Price, Dec, 

1986, p.66.) The first large-scaJe packet radio 
survey questionnaire is presented. 

"NK6K>Packer (by Harold Price, Jan. 1987, 
p.70.) The author discusses high-speed 
modems, HF forwarding networks, and restrict- 
ed BBSs. 

"NK6K>Packe£" (by Harold Price, Feb, 

1987, p.66,) The author discusses what should 
be included in a packet message header. 

"NK6K>Packct" (by Harold Price, March 
1987, p.82.) Results from the packet poll of 
December 1986 are presented. 

"NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, Apr. 
1987, p.76,) The author ansv^ers questions 

from readers. Topics include the recent survey 
and auto-forwarding. 

"NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, May 
1987, p,54.) The author reviews his first year 
writing a packet column. 

"NK6K>Packct" (by Harold Price, June 
1987, pJ8.) The author delves into coded 
packet transmi^s^ions. 



'Tacket Talk— Latest in Digital Hamming" 
{by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Apn 1988, p.67-) 
The author shows how packet radio can be used 
in an emergency. 



"NK6K>Packer (by Harold Price, July 
1987, p.560 The author discusses the AEA 
packet line, OSCAR 12, and the FO- 1 2 BBS. 

^*NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, Aug. 
1987, p.50.) The author discusses the virtue of a 
proposed FCC STA {special temporary autho- 
rization) to allow HF stations to run unattended. 

. '^NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, Sept. 
1987, p.68-} The author continues his discus- 
sion of the HF STA. 

"NK6K>Packet" (by Harold Price, Oct. 

1987, p.54.) The author revisits the August 
1987 packet issue and discusses using laptops 
for packet. 

"Packet Talk— Latest in Digital Hamming** 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Dec. 1987, p,59.) 
In his first packet column, the author discusses 
transceiver enhancements to better facilitate 
error- free packet communications, 

''Packet Talk— Latest in Digital Hamming" 
(by Brian Llnyd WB6RQN, Jan. 1988, p.80.) 
The author discusses protocols and layer defi- 
nitions. 

*Tacke{ Talk — Latest in Digital Hamming" 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Feb. 1988, p. 76 J 
The author looks at narrow bandwidth FM ra- 
dios in common use on packet radio. 

"Packet Talk— Latest in Digital Hamming'* 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Mar. 1988, pJ6.) 
The author discusses equalization and 
modems. 

"ATV" (by Mike Stone WB0QCD, Apr. 

1988, p.58.) The author discusses interfacing 
packet radio with amateur television. 

1 6 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 



"•Packti Talk— Latest in Digital Hamming*' 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, June 1988, p. 60.) 
This column is devoted to building a duplex: 
digipeater for 2 meters that requires little 
hardware and no software, 

"QRr {by Mike Bryce WB8VGE, June 88, 
p.67.) A short blurb describes low power pack- 
et operation. 

"RTTY Loop— Amateur Radio Teletype" (by 
Marc I. Leavey, M-D„ WA3AJR, August 1988, 
p-63.) Discussion of an AEA PC Pakratt pro- 
gram which can handle packet, Baudot, FAX, 
Morse, and AMTOR. 

"Circuits^ — Great ideas from our readers." 
"Portable Packet" (by Dick Peters WAIPWF, 
Feb. 1989, p.76.) A very simple circuit which 
allows you to use your TNC with an ICOM HT 

"DX— Hams Around the Word" (by Chod 
Harris VP2ML, Feb. 1989, p.790 Packet DX 
Spotting Networks, packet conference bulletin 
board, and packet cluster are discussed, 

"73 International" 'Tacket Radio in South 
Africa" (by Peter Strauss ZS6ET, Apr. 1989, 
pJ04.) A roundup of packet ham radio activi- 
ties in the Republic of South Africa. 

"Letters From the Hamshack/* *^Packet 
Racket" (Letter by John Shelley WAllAO/re- 
sponse by Brian Hastings NSIB, May 1989, 
p.92.) Mr Shelley calls packet an **filectronic 
plague" while Mr. Hastings responds that chng- 
ing to the past could kill ham radio. 



it 



"Circuiis — Great ideas from our readers." 
Packet/Voice Switch Box." (by Robert L, 
Dingle KA4LAU, Aug, 1989, p.58.) A simple 
circuit you can build to avoid having to discon- 
nect the input to the TNC and reconnecting the 
microphone in order to swich from packet to 
voice. 

"Ask Kaboom— The Tech Answer Man" (by 
Michael Jay Geier KBIUM, Sept. 1989, p.61.) 
The author answers reader inquiry about a flick- 
ering DCD light when there is no signal on his 
MFJ 1270 TNC. 

"Welcome, Newcomers!** (by Brian P Lloyd 
WB6RQN, Oct, 1989, p.6.) A handy one page 
introduction to packet terms and definitions. 

"Packet Talk — Latest in Digital Hamming" 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6R0N, Nov. 1989, p.50.) 
The author, returning from a one-year hiatus, 
discusses packet bulletin boards and proto- 
col. 

"Packet Talk— Latest in Digital Hamming*' 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Dec. 1989, p.46.) 
Topics this month include courtesy using 
packet on the ham bands and making AX,25 
more efficient, 

**Circuits — Great ideas from our readers.**"3- 
Position, Multi-Mode Switch Box " (by David 
K. Pelaez, Dec. 1989, p. 70.) Build an easy 
switch-box for RTTY, packet, FAX, and SSTY 



"Ask Kaboom--The Tech Answer Man*' (by 
Michael Jay Geier KBIUM, Dec. 1989, pJ2,) 
Fix a common cause of QRM on 2 meter mo- 
bile packet radio. 

"Letters From the Hamshack." "Closer Look 
at ROSE*' {A letter by Thomas A Moulton 
W2VY and response by Linda Reneau 
KA1UKM, Dec, 1989, p.76J A reader responds 
to comments about the ROSE nei working solu- 
tion in a recent packet issue of 73. 

"Packet Talk — Latest in Digital Hamming" 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Jan. 1990, p.58.) 
Topics this month include two packet confer- 
ences, new products, and the ARPANET/Inter- 
net) 



"Packet Talk — Latest in Digital Hamming*' 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Feb. 1990, p.58.) 
The author discusses ways in which packet can 
be improved, including better frequency coor- 
dination and more channels. 

"Packet Talk — Latest in Digiial Hamming" 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, March 1990, p.56.) 
The author talks about doing 800 Hz shift with 
the PK-232 and about a California grocery 
store which caters to computer hackers. 

"Packet Talk — ^Latest in Digital Hamming" 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Apr. 1990, p.54.) 
The author touches on the universal interface, 
PTT level converter, and the stagnation of pack- 
et radio, 

"Packet Talk- — Latest in Digital Hamming" 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, May 1990, p.SS.) 
The author discusses smart packet software 
and especially SAREX features, 

"Packet Talk — Latest in Digital Hamming** 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, June 1990, p.48.) 
The author discusses 10 meter packet includ- 
ing upper and lower sideband operation. 

"Hamsats— Amateur radio via satellite." (by 
Andy MacAHister WA5ZIB, June 1990, p.5l.) 
Modems for digital hamsat operation are dis- 
cussed. 



"Packet Talk — Latest in Digital Hamming" 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6R(3N, July 1990, p.64.) 
The author answers mail and discusses the 
"TAPR packetRADIO," 

"Packet Talk— Latest in Digital Hamming** 
(by Brian Lloyd WB6RQN, Aug. 1990, p.760 
Includes more on 800 MHz shift and more on 
10 meter packet discussion from a previous 
column. 

"Homing In — Radio direction finding.** (By 
Joe Moell RE. K0OV, Oct. 1990, p.52.) The 
author discusses triangulation by packet. 

"Hamsats— Amateur radio via satellite." (by 
Andy MacAHister WA5Z1B, Dec. 1990, p.8L) 
A discussion on packet via satellites is present- 
ed, including picture packets from space. 

"Hamsats — Amateur radio via satellite." (by 
Andy MacAHister WA5ZIB, Apr 1991, p.70,} 
How to copy the Soviet Mir Space Station on 
FM packet. 

Continued on page 18 



Feedback 



In our continuing effort to present tiie 
best In amateur radio features and 
columns, we recognize the need to go di- 
rectly to tlie source — you, the reader. Arti- 
cles and columns are assigned feedback 
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These numbers correspond to those on 
the feedback card opposide this page. On 
the card, please check the box which 
honestly represents your opinion of each 
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Do we really read the feedback cards? 
You bet! The results are tabulated each 
month, and the editors take a good, hard 
look at what you do and don't like. To 
show our appreciation, we draw one feed- 
back card each month and award the 
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To save on postage, why not fill out the 
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in a damning or praising letter to the edi- 
tor whl[e you're at it. You can also enter 
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test All for the low, low price of 29 cents! 

1 Never Say Die 

2 Letters 

3 QRX 

4 A Decade of Packet 

5 FM Packet Deviation Meter 

6 Review: PC Pakratt for Windows 

7 Review: STARTEK ATH-15 

8 Review: AEA PK-900 

9 Updates 

10 Julieboard 

11 Carf's Corner 

1 2 Hamsats 

13 Computer Control for Beam 
Antennas, Part I 

1 4 Packet & Computers 

1 5 RTTY Loop 

16 Homing In 

1 7 Hams with Class 

18 QRP 

19 ATV 

20 Above and Beyond 

21 Ask Kaboom 

22 73 InternationaJ 

23 Special Events 

24 Dealer Directory 

25 Ham Help 

26 Barter 'n' Buy 

27 New Products 

28 Random Output 

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73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 17 



Contiinted from page 16 

"RTTY Loop — Amateur Radio Teletype'' (by 
Marc L Leavey. M.D. WA3AJR, Aug. 1991, 
p.69.) "Packet or RTTY— Which is bai^iT 
The author compares and contrasts two of ama- 
teur radio's popular digital modes. 

"Harnsats — ^Amateur radio via satellite." {by 
Andy MacAllister WA5ZIB. Dec. 1991, p.62;) 
The author talks about 9600-bit-per-second 
packet operation via low earth satellites. 

"RTTY Loop — Amateur Radio Teletype'' (by 
Marc L Leavey, M.D. WA3AJR, Feb. 1992, 
p.620 The author walks a packet newcomer 
through his anxiety over the new digital mode. 

"Packet 6l Computers/' (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, Aug. 1992, p.620 In the first install- 
ment of his new column, the author reviews a 
number of helpful suggestions for network 
users and sysops. Topics include PBBS di rec- 
tory services and the WB7TPY Packet/Internet 
Gateway. 

"Packet & Compuiers." (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, Sept. 91 pJ8.) Subjects include tun- 
ing up your packet station, networks, repeaters 
and portable packet. 

*'RTTY Loop — Amateur Radio Teletype" (by 
Marc h Leavey, M.D., WA3AJR, Oct. 1992, 
p. 54.) The author explains to an RTTY user 
what he needs to know to lake that big leap in- 
to packet. 



(LI 



Packet (& Computers," (by Jeff Sloman 
NMEWO, Oct- 1992, p,64.) Subjects this month 
deal with portable packet operation: batteries, 
TNCs, and carrying cases. 

"Packet & Computers." (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, Nov. 1992, p.62.) This month's col- 
umn is devoted entirely to a digital radio glos- 
sary. 

"Packet & Computers." (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, Dec. 1992, p.74.) Includes good news 
about the Internet and highlights of the N0ARY 
BBS. 

"Packet & Computers." (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, Jan, 1993» pJ2.) A discussion of digi- 
tal signal processing and digital filters is pre- 
sented. 

"Packet & Computers." (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, Feb. 1993, p.66.) This month's col- 
umn focuses on TexNet 

"Packet & Computers." (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, March 1993, p.48.) The main topic 
this month is understanding asynchronous 
com mtinica tions* 

"Packet & Computers/' (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, Apr. 1993, p.40.) tn this first install- 
ment of a series, the author tells you huw^ to 
quiet down the RFI in your hamshack. 

"Packet & Computers." (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO. May 1993, p.400 The 'author presents 
the second half of his discussion on asyn- 
clironous communicaiionfi, (Sec March 1993.) 



"Packet & Computers;' (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, June 1993, p,50,) This month's col- 
umn looks at how packet operators (and hams 
in general) need to improve their behavior on 
the airwaves. 



m 



'Packet & Computers." (by Jeff Sloman 
NIEWO, July 1993, p.58.) This month, the au- 
thor covers hierarchical addressing, the sys- 
tem by which packet traffic is routed. 



Chronological Listing of 
73 Packet Product Reviews 

"Seeing Packet Radio With Different Eyes. 
The Versabraille 2 system allows blind hams to 
get connected/' (by Jeffrey Bishop 7FDS, Aug. 
1986, p.48.) The author reviews Telesensory 
Systems Inc/s word processor and communica- 
tor for the blind. It can be used with nearly any 
TNG to facilitate sightless packet operation. 

"MFJ-1270 TAFR-2 Packet TNC" (by 

Marc Stem NIBLH, June 1986, p. 24.) The au- 
thor reviews " . . - packet (for) the common man 
. , . aTAPR NC-2 clone that's every bit as good, 
if not better> than the original.*' 

"73's Packet Buying Guide" (Aug. 1986, 
p,88.) Table lists company, product, features, 
and price. 

"AEA PK^232 PAKRATT^ (by Perry Don- 
ham KWIO, Dec, 1986, p.22.) Advanced Elec- 
tronic Applications put all of ham radio's digital 
modes into one station controller. The unit in- 
cludes Morse, Baudot RTTY, ASCII, AMTOR, 
and packet. 

"The Heath HK^21 TNC. Hand-Held 
TNC!" {by Tom Gilchrist N7KHU, March 
1989, p.38.) "Heath calls the HK-21 a ^Pocket 
Packet* for a very good reason. It*s a compact, 
seif-contained TNC with a built-in personal 
packet bulletin board system (PBBS)." 

"DRSI PC*Packet Adapter. Revolutionizes 
the PC/transceiver interface.'' {by Brian Lloyd 
WB6RQN, Oct. 1989, p.20.) ^This board plugs 
in to your IBM or compatible and turns it into a 
complete packet radio communications sys- 
tem.'^ 

"GRAPES 56 Kb Modem. We've come a 
long way from 1200 baud packet " (by Philip R. 
Kam, Jr. KA9Q, Oct. 1989, p.42.) "How would 
you like to be able to send the equivalent of a 
standard 5,25" IBM PC floppy disk (360 
Kbytes) by packet radio in less than two min- 
utes? How about transmitting telephone-quality 
digUal voice over the air?" The author reviews a 
fast modem distributed by the Georgia Radio 
Packet Enthusiasts Society. 

''PacComm's NB-96 High Speed Modem. 

Dramatically increase packet data rates without 
buying a new packet system." (by Thomas A. 
Moulton W2VY and Robert A. Buaas K6KGS, 
Nov. 1989, p.30.) A review of a 9600-baud mo- 
dem that enhances most packet radio systems 
with no need to change rigs. 



"Pkt-GOLD Multimode. Your software 
window into the world of digital communica- 
tions!" (by Marc Stern WAIR, Aug. 1991, 
p,20.) **Pkt-GOLD Multimode is a program that 
turned out to be one of the best implementations 
of multimode controller software I have seen " 

'The TAPR METCON-] KiL Add teleme- 
try and control to your packet station." (by Bill 
Brown WB8ELK, Aug. 1991, pJ4.) "How 
would you like to have the ability to read sen- 
sors or control circuitry from a remote location 
via packet radioT* With this kit, you can do it. 

"The Kantroiiics KTU Telemetry Unit with 
Weathernode EPROIVL Remote weather ob- 
servations via packet !" (by Dick Goodman 
WA3LISG, Aug. 1991, p.46.) "The flexibility in 
the way weather data may be captured and pre- 
sented should meet the requirements of the most 
demanding amateur and professional meteorol- 
ogists." 



"The BayCom Packet System, Run packet 
without a TNC;^ (by Dick Goodman WA3USG, 
Dec. 1991, p;20.) This system is actually com- 
posed of two parts: "... a shareware program 
called 'BayCom,' and a simple modem.'' The 
reviewer calls it superb. 

"The Kantronics KPC-3. Puli^featured 
packet in a compact package." (by Mark T, 
Schmidt WB9EGA, Oct. 1992, p30,) This tiny 
packet communicator offers a long list of fea- 
tures, including WEFAX and KA-Node. 

'The Tigertronics BP-1 Packet Modem. Just 
add one computer for instant packet, (by Bill 
Brown WB8ELK, Dec. 1992, p. 52,) "How 
would you like to get on packet for less than 
S50? If you have an IBM compatible computer 
laying around, you only need to add the BP-1 
Packet Modem and run a software packet pro- 



gram 



T1 



it' 



The AEA DSP-2232;' (by Jeffrey Sloman 
NIEWO. March 1993, pJ7.) This product" . . . 
is a great example of how DSP (digital signal 
processing) can bring intelligence and llexibili- 
ty to a product traditionally hardwired for a 
job." 



Special Packet Issues 

On three previous occasions, we have devot- 
ed an entire issue of 73 to packet. These are 
"must read*' issues. They were published in Au- 
gust 1986, August 1987, and October 1989. 






Back issues ai^availte 
;?^?i they last lor $4.00 e^cn ppd. 
Reprints are aYaSli»bii|J J^^ 
pe^ir ' ^ ^Sr tici e* ^ -S 0iiiti|^ •■ ;G*<J ers ^ ^ W^'7$: 
Amateur: Radio Today, Repf int^^ 
70 Route 202N, Peterborough, 



18 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 



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)p9rajisaon l.^QHlvl^rKltS 
oc sNeded by hed[ Nght, or 
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ZM POWER AMP 

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Auns 0^1 9V tialtsry ot wall i^ans^ 
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VOICE ACTIVATED 
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Trans^iLs aiioia over 
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Transmitter i wceiv- 

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FMWIIIElfSS 
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FM l.baaicuntt S505 

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LO NOISE PREAMPS 
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ExDerlent gain and noia* lig^ 
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FM RADIO 

Fu|W|lMt(|H] supertiel. 
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SUPER SLEUTH 
A supot Sflfiisiivii am- 
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lohng baby's room or 
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IS voHs, iisaa S-4S 
ohm spojikeT, 
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BROADBAND 

PREAiiP 

Ve:> popular senvitive 
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timaM rne pnce barrcr on FVI ri^> The FK s Kieal for shx:*^ 
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Pa cfci le e r s p«aly ^ppreaaie une dei3ic«itf pacK^t parr 
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2 MTR & 220 BOOSTER AMP 

Here's a ^r&al boosler for any ? meter or 23G MHz har>d-held unlti 

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PA-1 2 MTR POM^R SOOSTTR f f X po*>er gain) 

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Matching cse & kmOb Hi. CORP ..... ._ tt2J6 



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Easy-io^^Mjid kit has aid e ione 



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AH Mode RECEIVERS 



Build your own mini ham stallon Sonsftive sH-rrrode 
AM, CW, SSB receivers use direi^t convarslon design 
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FM RECEIVERS 



a-Kl Beys niosi any traftsmiiBif Rtfo^hv months Oiie9V 
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CW7M ..^ .t24M 

MalcrriOQ case knob sei.CCW .._.._ (12^ 



ACTIVE ANTENNA 



Cramped for spate? Gel bngwfire peribrmance wiih 
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AA-7K[t , , J24.95 

bf aicivng case & krwti tetXAA $12 95 



SPEECH SCRAMBLER 



Cv>^^\^i«CS/K in KMa^ prH'Ky Over phone tr radio. Kid 
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Easy liooik^p lo pny radio, antf WafihrwiH ise recpat^a 
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SHORTWAVE RECEIVER 





Keep an ear on the (ocal rop«*itor gttrvQ. rritjnltor the cops, 
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FM corrvnunicalions rocciver kiH S29.95 

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FM STEREO TRANSMITTER 



Run youf own saereoFMaiaiien' Tranamtastafiiesignei 
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FMlOWt ....... S29.9S 

Ualchinig Cdse seL CFM it2.95i 



AIRCRAFT RCVR 



FarOastk: receiver Ihal capluros the world wl|h jusj a 
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RF {)ain control, pienTy ol apaiilwt ivoluiiie and rurrs on a 
9V battety Fascinating Scout, actnol tm duei protect 
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iot»oispealcef wbtie RjurHonaVbanery Gr^Kirair 
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LED BACKLIGHT 



1.57"X lOB-'X LED lighted 

backlight. Frequently jsed 

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ot characiers. Four green 

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6VDC, 4PDTKH STYLE RELAY 



SPECtAL PURCHASED 

Omron # MYQ4-02-VH-6VDC 

6 Vdc, 37.5 ohm coil, PC pins. 

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CAT#4PRUY-6PC 

$2 .50 each 

10forS20O0 



REDUCED PRICE! 
4 (USED) AA 
RECHARGEABLE BATTERiES 



Battery pack with A AA . 

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Batte/ies have soJdertabs and 

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CAT* NCB-41 AAU SPECJAL I S£,00 per pack 






12 VDC LA TCHING RELA Y 



Midtex # 327-21 B200 
12 Vdc, 400 Ohm dual coll latching relay. 
DPDT, 2 amp contacts. Fits 16 pin DIP 
socket. 0.8" X 0.4" X 0.33". UL listed, 
CAT#LRLY-125 $2.00 each 



VIDEO/RF MODULA TOR 



Originally made for use with 
the CorTtnr^odore comp jter, 
these good quaifiy 
video modulators 
Wfere probably 
designed for 9 Vdc 
use, but they operate 
well on 6-12 Vd<:. They accept color video and audio, 
and a seiector switch is provided tor output to channel 2 
or 3. Easy to hook-up. Requires a 6-12 Vdc power sup- 
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your a udioA/ideo source. RCA jack output. Hook-up in- 
structions included. 3" X 1 .47" X 0.75". 

CAT#AVM0D-3 $5.00 each 



DC-DC CONVERTER 



Satellite Technology 
Services, lnc,# AV011 
Input: 

13.75 Vdc to 27.5 Vdc 
Output: 

13.75 Vdc m 1.3 amps 
Plugs inio cigar lighter 
rBceptacle in car or airpfane. Converts, filters ar>d 
regulates voltage for use with 12-14 Vdc appliances. 
Fused cigar lighter plug on \\est'^y duty 3 ft cable. 
4 1/2 ft cord on output side terminates with a small DC 
cchax power plug that^ in most cases, will need to be cut- 
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ering portable TVs. communications equipment etc. 
CAT#AV-011 $5.00 eaoh 




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i -800-826-5432 

CHAnGB ORDERS to Vt^s, MiaslarCani &r Oimcotver 



TERMS: Mir}!'mum order SW.OO. Shipping ar}dhandiing 

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Call or Write For Our 
FREE 64 Page Catalog 

(Outside The U.S.A. Send $2.00 Postage) 

ALL ELECTRONICS CORP. 

CIHCLE t94 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

20 73 Amateur Radio Today • Au^UQif i293 



Updates 



Number 9 on your Feedback t^rcf 




IC4 I lies I llCfi MS 

Figure A. Corrected parts pfacement diagram for the Experimenter's Power Supply, 



Art Experimenter's Power Supply 

Se« the above article by KF9GX in the May 1993 
issue of 73, page 30. Here is a corrected parts 



placement diagram with the JN4001 diodes properly 
located. 

Continued on page 25 



Heterodyne Headache #14.226.5 

Get fast relief with a 



magic V notch 

automatic nr^tch audio filter 




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1 lie MagitNotcli filter: 

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* easily InstnlK bttivctn tht^ rig mid an 

♦ t^n be left on al 1 1 he t i m e ^nv ti I k opera t iitji 



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Mi^giL'ully removes all 
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CIRCLE 55 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Shipping & handling $5,00 
Foreign orders $10.00 





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Kumbef S on your Feedback card 



FM Packet Deviation Meter 

Put your packet station on the money for 20 bucks. 



by Steven R. Sampson N50WK 



There are a lot of "plug-and-play" ama* 
teurs lociuy, and niany are working FM 
packet. While many iraditional amateurs can 
draw a Bessel function chart with ihcir eyes 
closed, Lliis new breed of ham is a lot less 
technical. Many have a hard lime digesting 
the concepts of bandwidth and frequency 
drift, never mind deviatioiL This article will 
help. It shows how lo build a useful instru- 
ment, explains exactly why il is needed, and 
challenges the less-ihan-Eechnical ham to ex- 
pand his or her electronic expertise. 

Like most newcomers to VHF packet ra- 
dio, I set my system up by connecting all the 
cables and getting on the ain II wasn't loo 
long before 1 checked my audio levels. Un- 
like voice, there aren't a lot of people who 
complain if your packet audio is too hot or 
too weak. Actually, [ don't think anyone lo- 
cally listens lo the packet tones because I 
was hotter ihan a two dollar pistol. First 1 set 
my receive audio level, and this was simply 
an increase in volume until the TNC Data 
Carrier Detect (DCD) light illuminated, fol- 
lowed by a squelch adjustment (some TNCs 
can operate without squelch » and this is the 
belter way to go). You can make a pretty 
good judgement about setdng the transmitter 
audio level by listening with another radio, 
but the correct method is to use a devian'on 
meier. You won't find inexpensive deviation 
meters at any radio store, so you're going to 
have to build one. This article presents a de* 
viation meter based on William Crowl 
N6MWS's design from the January 1990 is- 
sue of 73 Amateur Radio Today. The circuit 
uses parts available at Radio Shack, and will 
run about $20. Bill's circuit featured many 
other useful functions which 1 deleted from 
this design to make it a simple one-evening 
project. 

Figure 1 shows the schematic. This meter 
is based on simple AC voltmeter principles. 
It picks up the JiC voltage from the receiv- 
er's FM detector, amplifies, rectifies, and 
drives the meter movement. The first stage 
takes the AC voltage from a scanner or your 
ham rig's discriminator output, blocks the 
DC, and amplifies it with a gain of three. 
The next two op amp stages form a clever 
full- wave rectifier function. The positive 
half of the input waveform passes around 
the second op amp to the third, while the 
negative half is inverted by the second stage, 

22 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 




Pfwio A. The FM Packet Deviation Meter makes this station complete. 



causing a positive output to the third stage. 
Bill recommends that you not change the 

values of the second-stage resistors. The cir- 
cuit is based on the LM-324 op amp chip. It 
draws about I mA total and will last tbrevcr 
on a 9 vok battery. It's very simple to put to- 
gether on a perftxiard See Figure 1. 



Calibration 

Fve really enjoyed watching all the sig- 
nals as much as listening to them, and it took 
a bit of analysis to figure out the best way to 
use the meter After several days of monitor- 
ing signals over the air, I found that the 
whole range of the meter is used by various 



Rn 9 of Scanner 
MC 3357 IC 





C2 



330K ^rl+ 



lOE 




R5 ^^ R7 



IE 



LuF 



y J, n. 



lOE 




Scan 



G 



IC 



MAKES METER 
Flead Zero When 
Squelch Is Active 



) 




Frfl Waw Uect 
ami huHfir 




f9v 



Figure L Schematic for the FM Packet Deviation Meten 



m. 



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Photo B. The FM Packet Deviation Meter with cover removed. 



Photo C The finished product. 



packet stations. The really poor ones drive 
the meter against the 15 reading (over devia- 
tion), while no audio of course, drops it 
down to 0. I chose the 2/3-scale 10 reading 
as the best calibration setting. 

Without a signal present, the discrinnina- 
tor outputs a noise waveform, so the calibra- 
tion pot on the meter is aligned to center 
about this 10 reading. Calibration needs to 
be performed each time the frequency is 
changed. 1 usually monitor the frequency for 
a minute to make sure there is no interfer- 
ence, and then recheck caiibration. Any 
anomaly causes me to change frequency and 
recalibrate. 

Wlien a packet is received, the meter will 
deflect downward for the good guys and up- 
wards for the bad guys. It's important that 
you only measure signals that are full-quiet- 
ing, as noise will throw the reading off. I 
find it best to keep the circuit portable and 
take it to the transmitter for alignment, RF is 
bad news for consistent readings, however. 
You can avoid this by both removing the 
scanner antenna and placing a dummy load 
on the transmitter. If your TNC does not 
have a variable deviation adjustment (a de- 
sign defect), the common method is to wire 
a I Ok ohm potentiometer into the audio line 
to the transmitter. Don*t depend on high or 
low jumpers to operate correctly — these are 
sucker settings. 

After these initial steps, I usually com- 
mand the TNC into the '*calibrate" mode and 
send the high tone. Another good method is 
to command the TNC to the "converse** 
mode and hold down the "'return" key. I then 
quickly adjust the audio pot to my calculated 
3 kHz deviation reading (about 8.0 on my 
meter). Unless you calibrate your meter to a 
known source you are only guessing about 
what the readings mean, as each discrimina- 
tor is different. If you can't find a calibration 
source, you can listen to signals on the air or 
tune your station by ear to get an initial esti- 
mate. After a couple of days you will quick- 
ly come to know what is good and what is 
bad by monitoring the performance of both 
your own and other packet stations. The ob- 



ject is to get a downward deflection* 

Some radios produce a noticeable differ- 
ence in the two AFSK packet tones. Here, 
you may want to do the alignment using the 
more critical high tone. As you might ex- 
pect, any frequency error throws everything 
off, so make sure both the meter's receiver 
and the transmitter are tuned to the same fre- 
quency. 

Deviation Basics 

Whether an FM receiver has a discrimina- 
tor, ratio detector, quadrature detector, or 
one of the modem phase detectors makes lit- 
tle difference as long as the output of the de- 
tector is proportional to the amplitude of the 
modulating tone. When a signal is fed to the 
FM modulator, it varies the frequency di- 
rectly. The modulated FM signal is a vari- 
able set of sidebands whose total bandwidth 
depends both on the frequency of modula- 
tion and the amount of deviation. The limits 
set by the typical narrow band FM receiver 
IF stage is about 15 kHz. 

The best method of determining the band- 
width of an FM signal is to use a Bessel 
function chart, as shown in Figure 3, You 
use this chart to find the number of sideband 
pairs and then compute the bandwidth. First 
you calculate the modulation index: 

m 

where P = modulation index,D = peak devi- 
ation, and m = modulating frequency. 

Then you examine the chart to see how 
many sidebands there are on each side of the 
carrier. If the curve comes off the baseline a 
line-width or more, I include that sideband. 
The simple bandwidth foitnulas you find in 
textbooks are all different and can be con- 
sidered unreliable. Use the chart. The worse 
case example is an FM signal that has been 
deviated 5 kHz with a modulating frequency 
of 3 kHz, The modulation index is L67, giv- 
ing us four sideband pairs, or eight side- 
bands of 3 kHz, requiring an estimated 24 
kHz bandwidth to contain it. This is quite 
acceptable for voice when it occurs only 
briefly. Packet uses a high tone of 2:2 kHz, 



and the predicted bandwidth using 5 kHz de- 
viation is a steady 22 kHz. Transmitting a 
signal with this wide a bandwidth is ccnain 
to fail with distant packet stations, and likely 
even to fail across town. There are two rea- 
sons: First, most rigs will clip the audio to 
limit the deviation, which causes distortion. 
The second reason is crystal stability. One 
rig may be tuned 1 .4 kHz higher in frequen- 
cy, and the other 1 A kHz lower, and still be 
within crystal tolerance on 145 MHz. This 
gives us about 15 kHz of worse-case usable 
rec ei verb and wid t h . 

Using 3 kHz deviation results in a modu- 
lation index of L36, and the chart shows 
about four sideband pairs, or 8 times 2.2 
kHz for a 17.6 kHz bandwidth on the more 




SCftN - 



2. a 

K 



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+ 
c 



R 
4 



R14 



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3350- 



gTiKl - 



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rw PACKET ^B i4-7K| - g 







^ 



Figure 2. PC board pattern and parts place- 
ment diagram. 



24 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 



UPDATES 

Continued from page 20 



Computer Control For The Ramsey FTR-146 

The above arttcfe by WDSBNR appeared on page 60 of the March 1993 issue of 73. We printed updates in the April and 
June issues. With this corrected printed circuit artwork, we hope to Inave ail the bugs out. 




Corrected PC artwork for the Computer Control for ttie Ramsey FTR- 146. 



The Noise Remover 

See the above article by K8MKB on 
page 12 of the November 1992 issue of 
73. En some instaElations, the circuit 
shown in Figure 3 breaks into oscilfa- 



tions. Chartge ftl from 47k to lOOk^ and 
R3 from 6B0k to 470k. Put a 0,001 ^lF ca- 
pacitor across the input side of CI to 
ground, and a 0.001 ^F capacitor from 
point A to ground (acfoss R8). 



For more output from the circuits 
shown in all of the figures, exchange the 
0,0047 |iF capacitor with the 0047 ^iF 
capacilof. The series resistors 
R5,R9,R12 can be increased up to 4.7k 



ohms. If you stifl need more output lake 
out C3 and C6, and replace C4.C5,C7 
with a 0.47 ^F tantalum. The limit adjust 
pot can be a tO-turn (not 25-lurn) 10k 
pot. 



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CmCLE ZB9 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 25 



1.0 



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■odulation JuAbx, 



Figure 3. Bessel fimciion chart.. 







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crittc:i] high tone, and 12 kHz for the low 
lone. This reduced bandwidth is much less 
affected by the frequency drift between sia- 
lions, and is not distorted by the iransmittcr 
deviation limiting circuits. By listening to 
rhe audio produced by 5 kHz deviaiion you 
will notice that it sounds raspy and terrible, 
while the 3 kHz sounds very pure. 



Condusiaa 

The recommended setting for packet is 3 
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ensure that the transmitter hasn't gone into 
limiting, and that the bandwidth is optimized 
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ter out, and make sure everyone gets a 
chance to use it. Thanks go to William 
Crow] N6MWS for an excellent article and a 
rcpcaiable circuit design, and to Joe Buswell 
K5JB who helped me first to calibrate the 
meter and then lo understand FM modula- 
tion. 






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CAL 



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CIRCLE 76 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 27 



73 Review 



Kumber 6 on yaur Feedback card 



by Jeffrey Sloman NIEWO 



PC Pakratt for 

Windows 

Love at first byte. 



Advanced Electronic Applications, Inc. 

RO. BoxC2160 

2006 196th St. SW 

Lynnwood WA 98036 

Telephone: (800) 432-8873 

Price Class: $1 29 



By the time you read this, Pakratt for 
Windows (PPWItSl) should be ship- 
ping — linally! It's been a long tin^e, but, if 
you use Windows and own an AEA con- 
troller or TNCt you'll be glad you waited. 
The product \ looked at was nnarked "pre- 
liminary," but it was pretty much the product 
that will ship, with a few rough edges still 
there. The fact is, even in this pre-release 
state, I prefer to use this product over any 



ham radio digital communtcations software 
on the market. 

The Next Generation 

I used PPWIN to controi the new PK-900p 
which you will find reviewed elsewhere in 
this issue. Together, these two make a truly 
state-of-the-art digital station for the avid 
operator. Think of PPWIN as a very-pleas- 
ant-to-use soft front end for AEA controller 



Pc Pakratt For Windows 



hardware. It doesn't offer features found In 
other terminal programs like LAN-Link or 
PK-Gold — it wasn't designed to. Instead, 
you will find it an excellent replacement for 
learning the multitude of command line in- 
cantations required to make the hardware 
do all its tricks, and it offers the very user 
friendly Microsoft Windows environment. 

PPWIN really knows AEA hardware. 
Through easy-to-use combo boxes — ed- 



Dle INC Earamaters jQonfigure T^tois Wrtdow yelp 



li WMu ti uB MM JawWiJ t vU e ^^jwf^Kuci i uni i iiupii i u<v i i''Ui>i ' »M' " ^«-^M ' . > '»i^)"tP«*j^i*'*w i iMj pigt'iy < ^ H q a a L 'iB' ; 'M^ w^mrr^x 




Figure t. From Pakratt for Windows' main screen you can do just about everything your AEA controller is capable of. 
28 73 Amateur Radio Today August, 1 993 



PUT SOME EXCITEMENT BACK INTO YOUR HOBBY! 




To subscribe 

by phone 

call 

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Radio Today 

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» "Never Say Die," Wayne Green's monthly view 
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Radio Today 



70 Route 202, N • Peterborough, NH • 0345S I 
(603) 924-0058 • Fax (603) 924-9327 | 

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Newsstand Rate S35.40. Basic Subscn'ptlon rate $24.97. Allow 4^6 weeks for first issuQ. 
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itable fields with drop-down lists— and di- 
rectly accessible buttons, PPWIN lets you 
control every aspect of any AEA controller 
Forget hours with the manual trying to 1ig- 
ure out everything your new controller does: 
With PPWIN all the options are right in front 
of you — or a few mouse clicks away. 

The Main Screen 

At startup, PPWIN greets you with a 
blank gray window and a menu bar, typical 
of any Windows application. The first step is 
to configure the program using the aptly 
named Configure menu, PPWIN can handle 
two different controllers, called TNC1 and 
TNC2. These can be any AEA product, 
from the top-end DSP-2232 to the budget- 
level PK-88. Selecting TNCi from the Con- 
figure drop-down pops up a second menu 
which allows you to set various parameters 
relating to the controller. 

Set Color 

This option invokes a dialog box which 
can be used to set the text colors for text 
messages displayed in the TNCI window 
when it is visible. Different colors can be set 
for text depending upon whether it Is re- 
ceived, echoed, or a message from the 
controller. These color schemes can be dif- 
ferent for each of the controller's virtual 
channels. This is a very useful feature for 



those who run multiple connections, 

TNC Configuration 

This menu option offers access to the 
communications parameters used to talk to 
the controller, and allows the specification 
of a particular model It also provides an ar- 
ray of check boxes for selection of imtializa- 
tion options. 

Program Files 

This option provides a way to specify 
files used by PPWIN for messages and oth- 
er use. The files are specifted by DOS path 
name, and push-buttons invoke standard 
browse boxes to help locate the desired file. 
There are quite a few files settable from this 
dialog box: 



AMTOR Connect File 

Buffer RIe 

Port 2 Buffer File 

Capture File Default 

Macro File 

Maitdrop File 

TNC Parameter File 

Packet Connect File 

FACTOR Connect File 

QSO Log File 

QSO Default File 



Program ConfiguratJon 

This dialog lets you specify a macro to 
execute at startup, and one for exit^ — a nice 
feature. This can save a lot of trouble if you 
normally do several things at either time. Al- 
so available in this box are the buffer si^es 
for each port (this defaults to 64K). and 
check boxes to decide whether one or both 
controllers will automatically open on start- 
up. 

QSO Log Defaults 

This dialog offers fields for default entries 
in your QSO log. You can specify rig. anten- 
na, frequency, and power. These can be 
overridden at logging time. 

Opening a TNC 

Once you have specified the various pa- 
rameters you are interested in^ — the only re- 
quired ones are in the TNC Configuration 
dialog — ^the TNC menu on the main menu 
bar will show the hardware you configured. 
Selecting either TNC will open and initialize 
your choice. If you have a two-port unit, like 
the PK-900 used to test the program, port 2 
will be an additional choice on this menu. 
By cleverly using the controller's host 
mode, PPWIN can let you access both 
ports concurrently--each with its own visi- 
ble window. 

PPWIN opens a window for each con- 



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30 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1 993 



troller or controller port that is opened from 
the TNC menu. Each of these windows has 
a gray bar at the top, with various combo 
boxes, buttons, and status windows. Below 
are two panes with scroll bars, one for re- 
cerved text and messages from the con- 
troller — the other for locally typed text. This 
fs where you communicate with other sta- 
tions, but not with the centre I J er itself. Here- 
in lies one of my wish-list additions to the 
program. Those of you who, like me, are 
used to operating controllers in a com- 
mand-IJne fashion will probably find your- 
selves typing thrngs tike MH and C AA9FR 
These just won't work, since anything you 
type goes out on the air I wish that AEA 
had Included a command-line window 
where direct controller commands could be 
typed — sometimes command Wne is just 
easier. 

The initialization process wiJI be familiar 
to those who are current Pakratt users. A 
small box shows each parameter's name as 
it is set. The time required for the process 
can be greatly reduced by checking the 
Fast Initialization box In the TNC Configura- 
tion dialog. 

Controlfer commands are all sent through 
the combo boxes and buttons at the top of 
the window and, to be honest, I would much 
rather have just these, rather than only a 
command line. On the left-most side of the 



control bar is a combo box to select operat- 
ing mode. Pressing the down arrow on this 
box drops down a list of all operating 
modes available for the controller/port that 
is active. Choosing one instructs PPWIN to 
set the controller for operation in the select* 

"One of the nicest 

things about PPWiN 

is the push-buttons 

that give you 
immediate access 
to your controiler's 
functions. " 

ed mode, indudtng the modem and shift re- 
quired. Just to the hght of the mode box is 
another combo box which selects data rate. 
This works the same way and displays the 
available rates for your hardware. 

A set of push-buttons and a small box di- 
rectly adjacent to the mode and data rate 
controls provides a way to select the virtual 
channel to be monitored, tt is possible to 
select all channels or any particular chan- 
nel. 



Directly below these three controls are 
the status line and time/date. The status 
line displays messages appropriate to the 
operating mode — with information Ifke un- 
ack'ed and received trames, and the state 
of the link. The date and time are displayed 
just below the status. The time appears In 
UTC (Coordinated Universal Time, also 
known as GMT — Greenwich Mean Time) to 
the left, and local 24-hour format tinrid to the 
right of the date. Two small buttons allow 
you to select the desired version of the 
time, whose color switches to red when 
chosen. 

PustHButton Ofjeration 

One of the nicest things about PPWlN is 
the push-buttons that give you immediate 
access to your controHer's functions. Some 
buttons do something immediate, like the 
one that turns on the maildrop — ^AEA's term 
for mailbox— and the CONPERM button 
that makes the current connection perma- 
nent until you turn it off. Most other buttons 
produce dialog boxes that give you an easy 
way to do things that otherwise would re- 
quire multiple command lines or tedious lin- 
ear input. 

Connect 

The Connect button produces a dialog 
with an editable field, a list box, and six but- 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* August. 1993 31 



^ 



^] 






ChcinneJ Status wn(!i MHEARD listing 



'.1 
■,•1 




>ft=^:^:=;:i:^:^^j5$:;:;^^^:^^^^:.:^^:c.>K*? 



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. ■■ k - ■ + 1- - H -^ k^ + + + + I- ■ i<> h 1 - ■ 



11^ |BB I tall ■■tlT.IBHl ■■TKIBirWl ^fc J ■ WJP^ ■ ■ ■ B ^Tl ^g I J^T M f^M ■ ■ ■ Bi J J ■ M. M M ■! K ■ B^ ■ ■_■_■ ■ mA ■ _A. ■■ ■ «■ ■ J^ ■ B^ ■ ^ ^T^B J^ ■ ■■ blld lilld ■■■ ■?■ Jl ■ ». M M ^ ^ ^ mTL ■ ^i fc^ ■■^■Jd.blHJ.hBIJbl >. ^B "■• 4> I ■ I 

■■.il r+BBJ-tB^utBHiipBLBFJ + tin + ^M" _ ^i#"_ B If J. #h#~_ J ^^K. M^^B^ + ■■ I ^^^^ •■ P^T^i * i ■« K ■ ri ■»-^^^r+ »'■■ -^ ^ + I'^Pj- + ^^ h^^4 b ^'T^I'^^ + '-b- + -b-" l-rB->-ta HT^I H^F^p -^Ti fc W» 1 JM- 4-B-i-r-BT' ■ !-b-i h -'m 1 1 i'^b + 'i'^B aha k 




tons. The field at the top of the box is 
where the desired connection gets speci- 
fied. This can include digipeaters, and the 
line IS specified in the traditional fashion; 

N1EWO V AA9FP, EOC, BED (for example) 

This is jast as a command line would 
work, but with PPWIN you need only type 
the connect string once. At that point you 
can press the Add button, which will add 
the string to the list box, from which you 
can select the connection in the future. A 
companion Delete button allows removal of 
any strings from the list. The dialog also in- 
cludes a Disconnect button, should you 
want to close an existing connection or one 
in the process of being made. The other 
three buttons include the usual Close, OK, 
and Help buttons. 

The Heip button, as the l-teip menu op- 
tion and any other heip button in another di- 
alog, launches the standard Windows on- 
line help system containing the entire man- 
ual for PPWIN, as well as a complete listing 
of AEA controller settings. This is a great 
feature! Pressing a help button in any dia- 
log produces instant context-sensitive ad- 
vice — no scrounging through manuaJ 
pages. As is usual with Windows help, you 
can search the text for keywords allowing 
quick and easy access to the information — 
this feature alone would have value as a 
separate product. 

A companion Disconnect button is locat- 
ed just below the connect button on the 
main button bar for easy access. 

File Transfer 

The File Transfer button features a file 
folder with "XFER" on its side — pretty easy 
to locate. This button makes moving files 



Figure 2. MHEARD dialog box. 

between stations a snap, and not just text 
but binary (program, data, etc.) fries, too. 
Pressing the button produces a dialog box 
with several buttons and a list box. A nice 
feature of PPWlN's file transfer capability is 
background operation. It is possible to start 
a file transfer — ASCII or binary — ^and switch 
to a different virtual channel to carry on a 
conversation. This is very convenient, given 
the relative slow transfer rate of most pack- 
et operations. 

As with the Connect dialog box, PPWIN 
maintains a list of file names which can be 
added to, deleted from, or selected from 
the list box* Radio buttons— mutually exclu- 
sive push-buttons — select send or receive 
binary, or ASCII transfer modes. 

Capture 

Text capture, too, is just a button press 
away — indicated by a right-pointing arrow 
aimed at a floppy disk. This button pro- 
duces a simple dialog box with a place to 
type in a file name (the default name is 
specified in the configuration menu), a Find 
button which allows browsing for a specific 
file, and a pair of radio buttons that select 
overwrite or append modes. 

Printing 

A Print button turns on and off capture to 
the printer. As with all Windows applica- 
tions, printer setup is on the File menu. 

MHEARD Lrst 

A button sporting a small ear produces 
the Channel Status and MHEARD Listing 
dialog box. This list serves two purposes. 
First, it shows recently heard stations — just 
as you'd expect. The surprise is that each 
entry on the list forms a push-button; push- 



ing it — plus OK or Enter— will automaticafly 
connect you to that station. This Is a great 
feature — no more scribbling down the info 
so you can try to connect to a new station 
that shows up on the list. 

This dialog also shows a list of all virtual 
packet channels, and whether they are cur- 
rently connected. As with the MHEARD list, 
selecting a channel from the list allows you 
to switch directly to that channel. 

Maildrop 

The Maildrop button makes maintenance 
easy. Pressing the button, marked with an 
addressed envelope, invokes the maildrop 
dialog. This dialog offers a list of incoming 
messages at the top— a double click will 
read the message into a pane just below 
where it can be scrolled using standard 
Windows scroll controls. Once the mes- 
sage is read, push-buttons offer several op- 
tions: 

Save Message — An editable field speci- 
fies the file name, a press of the Save Msg 
button writes the current message to that 
file. 

Kill Message — The Kill button deletes the 
message from the Maildrop, just like typing 
kill {message number} at the command 
line. 

Edit Message — This button invokes a 
small dialog which allows the editing of var- 
ious message parameters and status. 
Three edit boxes offer the From, To, and 
BBS addresses for editing. Six radio but- 
tons set Private^ Traffic, and Bulletin sta- 
tus — as well as Reverse Forward, Read, 
and Not Read. 

A dialog built into the bottom of the Mail- 
drop dialog allows the composition of a 
message. Fields for Subject and Callsign 



32 73 Amateur Radio Today August, 1993 



specify message parameters. The text Is 
typed into a pane beiow and edited, or a 
filename can be specified or browsed as 
the message. 

Macros 

PPWIN has so many useful features itiat 
I find myself wanting to say, This is a great 
feature!* over and over. So, at the risk of 
repetition— this is a great feature. Macros 
are used by PPWIN in two basic ways. 
First, there are standard macros for various 
operating modes. In AfvlTOR. for examp<e, 
there is a GQ-AMTOR macro which you ed- 
it to contain your personal CQ text. The 
other type of macro is one you can choose 
from a listbox by pressing the Macro button 
from the main bar. 

This dialog lets you create your own 
macros, which can be used to send special 
text and to control some controller func- 
tions. This is not the intention of the 
macros, unfortunately. To accomplish this, 
the function that you are interested in must 
have a keyboard shortcut and you must 
use a separate editor to get that shortcut as 
text. As an example, CTRL+F, in AMTOR 
mode, stops transmitting and sends a 
Morse ID. To include this In a macro* sever- 
al steps are required: 

1. Launch Windows Write — the Mi- 
crosoft-supplied word processor. PPWIN 



actually makes this easy: It appears on the 
Tools menu of the main menu bar. 

2, While holding the ALT key down, type 
06 on the numeric keypad — not the number 
row of the main keyboard. Than release 
ALT CTRL+F has an ASCII value of 6; 
Windows needs the leading 0, A box wifl 
appear in the Write window. This Is a place 
holder for an unprintable character. 

3. Using the mouse* carefully select just 

"Another thing that 
PPWIN does to make a 

ham 's life easier is 
provide a way to easiiy 

set all those parms 

that make or break 
your station. 



93 



the box. Using the copy option from Writers 
Edit menu, transfer the character to the 
Clipboard. 

4, Return to PPWIN's macro edit Window 
and Paste the copied CTRL+F In — the 
SHIFT+INSERT key combo wilJ do this. 

You now have a CTRL+F in your macro* 
While this worics, it*s no fun. The next ver- 



sion of PPWIN needs improvements to the 
macro capabilities. 

All Those Pesky Parameters 

On the main menu ban the Parameters 
menu offers a way to set parms for each 
operating mode separately. Each choice 
provides a dialog with each parm available. 
Depending upon the nature of the para me* 
ter, it can be changed wrth a push-button, a 
drop down list, or an editable field — and 
they are all right there in front of you. To top 
it off, help is just a button press away. This 
is not only a great way to set the parame- 
ters, but it's a great way to learn them, too. 

More and More . . . 

As much as 1 have written about this 
product, there is more to it. There is a lot of 
depth to PPWIN, which is really designed 
to make operations easier. It Is not wart- 
free, but it is, in my opinion, the best way to 
do digital ham radio I have ever seen, es- 
pecially when teamed up with a PK-900 or 
DSP-2232 and their state-of-the-art capa- 
bilities. PPWIN will not t>e everything to ev- 
6ryt>ody. but 1 can say that I feel a little sor- 
ry for those of you who don't own AEA 
hardware, since you need It to run this 
great program. If you own a Windows-ca- 
pable computer and an AEA TNC or con- 
troller you have to own PPWIN! 








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73 Ama f ei/r Rac//o Totfay* August, 1993 33 



73 Review 



Number 7 on your Feedback card 



by Larry R, Antonuk WB9RRT 



The STARTEK ATH-15 

Portable Frequency 
Counter 



STARTEK international, Inc. 

398 NE 38th Street 

Ft, Lauderdale FL 33334 

Telephone: (305)561-2211; 

(800) 638-8050 (orders only) 

Price Class: $235 



One of the fringe benefits of beconning a 
ham Is watching the evolution of modern 
electronic technology. We hams have a front- 
row seat at the electronic stage — and some- 
times we even get to perform. For example, it 
wasn't too long ago that a 2m handheld with 
frequency switches instead of crystals was a 
big deal, Nowadays, if you don't have dual 
bands, 97 memories, full-duplex, an alarm 
clock, and musical access tones, you're just 
not up to speed! In any product. If you look 
closely enough, there is always a spot in time 
where the engineers obviously accomplished 
the main goal, and then were able to concen- 
trate on adding 'Irosting" for making the user 
more comfortable. Once the product has 
reached the point of fastest/smallest/most 
powerful/most sensitive, it starts to get more 
"humane." These features may take the form 
of memories or scan functions in our hand- 
held, or more intuitive controls or menus. The 
radio doesn't really transmit any better than 
that old rock-bound rig, but it starts to make 
life easier— which is really the main job of any 
piece of technology. 

This whole concept of "user- 
friendliness" is more often seen 
in consumer items — ham 
Tigs, computers, cellular 
phones — than in 



electronic test equipment This is mainly due 
to the number of units sofd, the profit made, 
and consequently the dollars pumped back 
into R & D. In light of this, it's impressive to 
see a low-cost piece of test equipment that 
has made the jump over to "user friendly." 

It's User Friendly 

The STARTEK ATH-15 Pocket Sized Fre-^ 
quency Counter comes from a long line of 
counters that, over the years, have been get- 
ting smaller, and faster, and able to read 
higher and higher frequencies. The engineers 
at STARTEK obviously found themselves at 
the same point as their consumer electronics 
counterparts. The last model out was certain- 
ly small enough — any smaller and you'd have 
to strap it to your wrist. It counted every fre- 
quency that most hams 
were interested in. There 
was a full line of acces- 
sories. The only other fm- 
provements could be in 
the category of "you 
know, it would be kinda 
nice [f ft did ... " The 
STARTEK engineers took 
this assignment seriously 
and came up with two 
new features that make 
the ATH-15 not just easy, 
but actually enjoyable to 
use. 
The first feature 
actually has 




nothing to do with frequency counters. It's an 
LED bar graph signal strength meter. This 10- 
segment graph sits near the top of the dis- 
play, and simply indicates relative field 
strength. By itself, this is a useful item for an- 
tenna testing, foxhunting, or checking tor RF 
leaks around your operating console. Used in 
conjunction with the counter, it provides an 
easy way to get a handle on maximizing the 
input to the counter when using low power 
sources. Rather than waiting for several 
counts until things stabilize and hoping for a 
good reading, you can simply peak the LED 
bar graph and know that your signal is at 
max-HDr relocate the counter or RF source 
until it is. This combined feature is very useful 
when playing with flea power transmitters, or 
snooping on a we^ signal, {it should be not- 
ed that even though the counter and field 
strength meter can be used at the same time, 
they are electrically two separate devices. 
Some products on the market use a signal 
derived from the counter's circuitry for a 
strength indication. This works, but the signal 
strength readings can be dependent on the 
gate time of the counter, and whether or not 
it's in the HOLD mode. The ATH-15 keeps 
these functions separate, providing a true re- 
al-time field strength meter— at no extra 
cost.) 

The second feature is actualiy several fea- 
tures, but they all culminate in the Automatic 
Trigger and Hold circuitry. This feature is ex- 
tremely impressive, especially considering 
the price tag on the unit. Put simply, the 
readout will hold and display the last 
properly received frequency. In other 
words, keying your portable for a sec- 

Iond on channel one will cause that fre- 
quency to stay on the display. Flip to 
channel two and tap the PTT. The dis- 
play will flip to channel 
two's frequency — 
and stay there. 
This is a great 



Photo A. ThB STARTEK ATH-15 Portable FrBquency Counter, 
34 73 Amateur Radio Today August, 1993 



function for testing or checking out multi-fre- 
quency radios, or counting and storing an in- 
terfering frequency, (ff ^e opttona) "One-Shot 
Trigger" and "Hold" options are purchased, 
the ATH-15 will display and lock onto the first 
readable signal, ignoring any that follow,) 

Just as important as the Autonnatic Trigger 
and Hoid capabilities are the functions ttiat 
make it possible. The first of these is an 
ainazingty quick count time. The specs say 
that the unit can read an input signal, display 
tfie frequency, and switch to HOLD status in 
less than 80 miiJiseconds. In reality, 80 mil- 
llseconds seems like the point somewhere 
between where you decide to push the PTT 
and where you feel any pressure at all. (Plan 
on spending the first five minutes with your 
new counter running around the house, key- 
ing up everything in site. When I showed off 
the review unit to friends and technicians, Ih© 
common term to describe the response time 
was *Wow.") 

The other feature of importance is the "Au- 
tomatic Dean Drop>our function. This keeps 
an eye on the current frequency and com- 
pares it to the last count. If the current count 
is of a shorter duration, the unit hangs on to 
the last good count without updating the dis- 
play. This means that the "held" frequency 
will probably be correct — no "garbage" counts 
are displayed from when the transmitter was 
dekeying. 

The ATH-tS is a sensitive unit. Most hand- 



helds could be detected out to about 100 feet 
with no problem, using the standard antenna. 
The problem with this sensitivity is that the 
unit is easily overloaded in strong multtple RF 
fields. This is due to a combination of the 
unffs 1 to 1500 MHz bandwidth, plus it's high 
sensitivity. Unlike a radio with a tuned front- 
end< the ATH'15 can be listening to several 
signals in addition to the one you want to 
count. In other words, if you want to copy a 
weak 146 MHz signal at the same time the 
ATH-15 is hearing a garbage truck on 30 
MHZt the police on 155 MHz, a construction 
company at 450 MHz, and a cellular phone at 
850 MHz — well, things can get confusing. 
This "swamping" is the nature of any broad- 
band device^ as any ham who's had Hs HT at 
a flea market can tell you. The STARTEK en- 
gineers have created a solution to this in the 
form of a set of three different bandpass fil- 
ters. These halfnnch diameter filters come 
with BNC connectors, and pop in-line with the 
external antenna. They fitter out the unde- 
sired frequencies, while passing the band you 
might be interested in. The filters ar^ avail- 
able in 60 MHz tow-pass, 400 MHz high- 
pass, and 800 MHz high-pass configurations. 
They greatly increase the "effective sensitivl- 
ty** of the unit, and would be helpful if you 
tend to do off-the-air monitoring of specifrc 
channels or bands. For most general purpose 
applications the filters won't be needed. 
Operation of the ATH-t5 Is similar £o earii- 



er members of the STARTEK family. The 
"Count" switch controls the speed at which 
the samples are taken. As normal, a slower 
count time gives you a higher resolution 
display (five decimal places when counting a 
1 to 500 f^Hz signal in the "Slow" position). 
The unit has a manuaf hofd switch for locking 
in a reading, and of course the Automatic 
Trigger and Hold function can be turned on or 
off. If the "One Shof option is purchased, 
switches on top control the resetting and op- 
eration of this mode. Like other models^ this 
unit has two band positions: 1 to 500 MHz. 
and 500 to 1500 MHz. New features include 
a low battery indfcator and extra bright LED 
digits. 

In addition to the basic unit, STARTEK of- 
fers a complete Irne of accessories including 
antennas, cases, a high-stabiljty osdilator op- 
tion, and the bandpass filters. (Due to its size, 
the ATH-15 will tend to spend a lot of time in 
the toolbox or on the dashboard. The optional 
case is highly recommended.) At press lime, 
the ATH-t5 was t>eing offered at a promotion* 
al price of $199, and a new model, the ATH- 
30 (2.S MHz capability), was introduced at 
$259. They come standard with the one-shot 
feature. Prices include NiCds and a charger, 
and a one-year labor, five-year parts warran- 
ty. Your requirements concerning range and 
options might vary, but any of the STARTEK 
counters represent a great value for your test 
equipment dollar. 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1 993 35 



73 Review 



NItrnber 8 an your Feedback card 



by Jeffrey Shntan NIEWO 



The AEA PK-900 

State-of'the-art digital ham radio. 



Advanced Electronic Applications, Inc. 

RO. &oxC2r§0 

2006 196lhStSW 

Lynnwood WA 98036 

Telephone: 800-432-8873 

Price Class: $569 



The dual-port PK-900 represents ttie next 
evolutronary step in AEA's multi- 
mode controller technology. Unlike the 
revolutionary DSP-2232, the PK-900 uses 
traditional modem technology with a few 
high-tech twists. The PK-900 offers im- 
proved ease of use and some changes in 
the computer-controlled portions of the unit's 
circuitry. 

LCD City 

Unlike previous models^ — even the top-of- 
the-lina DSP-2232— the PK-900 sports a 
sexy new LCD annuciator panel in place of 
the traditional LED Christmas light display. 
This high-contrast, backlit panel is easy to 
read under most lighting conditions, (with the 
exception of some occasional glare from re- 
flected light.) One thfng that makes thrs new 
display paitJcuiarty useful is that, unlike the 
LED arrays of previous models, these indica- 
tors say just what they mean. The operating 
mode of either port can be seen from across 
the room — no more memorizing LED loca- 
tior^ or guessing. The display provides a lot 
of information: operating mode, link state, TX 
and PCD indicators, various status indicators 
andt at the bottom of the display, a tuning 
meter. 

Those of you interested In HF modes 
have, no doubt, spent a lot of time In front of 
your controller's tuning meter trying to get 
those LEDs to look Just like tfie picture in the 
manual, 1 have. too. To be honest, my first 
reaction to the new LCD version was not 
good. It Is quite different to use than the 
LEOs I had come to know. 8ut after I had 
used the 900 for a while 1 found the LCD just 
took some getting used to. It is at leas! as 
good, if not better than, its predecessor. At 
the very least, it is physically wider, making it 
easier to see. 

Note that the 900 display has only fixed 
annuclators, rt does not have the ability to 
display arbitrary text messages like its DSP- 
2232 big brother. While this would be very 
nice to have. It really does detract from the 
900^3 utility. 

Also located on the front pane! are the tra- 
ditional threshold control (a nice, big, easy-to- 
use knob) and the power switch. This knob 
adjusts the sensitivity of the DCD (Data Cani- 
er Detect) ftjnction. and is only functional for 
port 1, Moving the power to the front is a nice 
change from the PK-232, the 900's predeces- 
sor. 

30 73 Amateur Radio Today • August 1 393 




Photo A. The AEA PK-900. 



The Back Panel 



The back panel of the unit is a pleasant 
blend of the old and new. The 900 uses the 
same coaxial power connector as previous 
models, making upgrading a little easier A 
five-pin DIN connector provides output for a 
tuning scope, and for direct CW keying. 

This connector replaces the old RCA jacks 
lor keying, although Tm not sure this is an im- 
prove ment. The RCA approach was very 
easy to use. 

The two radio ports depart from the PK- 
232 and more closely resemble the DSP- 
2232's five-pin DIN connectors. The 232's un- 
usual radio connectors made building a cable 
somewhat difficult once the AEA-supplied 
units were exhausted. A pleasing throwback 
to the 232. however, is the Inclusion of two 
1/e-inch phone jacks on the rear for audio in- 
put This is great for SWLs who will not trans- 
mit with the unit, and for those of you who are 
like me and just cani waft to see the unit do 
its stuff. 

A fourth DIN connector provides FSK (Fre- 
quency Shift Keying) outputs for RTTY fans 
with radios capable of using them. Both posi- 
tive and negative keying are available, Trans- 
mit level controls for each radio are screw- 
driver adjustments, also located on the back 
panel. 

The connectpon from the PK-900 to a data 
terminal or computer is made through a DB- 
25 connector which supports pins 1 through 6 
and 20. These are the standard pins needed 
for any sort of RS-232 serial connectkJn, fMexl 
to this connector is the unif s reset button, 
which operates in conjunction with the power 
switch to reset the 900 to factory defaults. 

Four additional trimmers located on the 
right side of the box allow screwdriver adjust- 



ment of the AFSK levels for each radio. The 
PK-232 had only one. pointing out that the 
900 is a true two-port unit, not just able to 
switch between radios. 

What Can It Do? 

The specifications of the PK-900 are Im- 
pressive. The unit will operate in just about 
any mode that a modem ham could want; 

AX.25 (Packet) HF and VHF 

Baudot RTTY 

ASCII 

AJ^OR 

PACTOR 

hflorse (send/receive) 

HF Wefax (Weather Fax) in Grayscale 

NAVTEX reception 

TDM (Time Division Multiplex) reception 

Bit-inverted RTTY (encrypted) reception 

The PK-900 accomplishes all these modes 
with some very nice hardware. AEA has al- 
ways been known for superior HF perfor- 
mance, and the PK-900 incorporates the 
same eight-pole Chebychev bandpass filter 
used in the excellent PK-232 for high fre- 
quency operations. This filter means Itiat the 
900 should do miich better It^an average with 
poor signal conditions, an assertion borne out 
by experience— not Just mine; ask around. 
The 900 has it all over the PK-232 in the mo- 
dem department, since soft selection of the 
modems let each mode's precise needs be 
accommodated. 

On the output side, the unit uses a DDS 
chip (Direct Digital Synthesis) to modulate the 
radio making it extremely flexible. The PK- 
900 could produce any sort of rrxxjulation you 
might want, including DTMF or two-tone se- 
quential paging, if the mood struck you. A us- 
er program capability makes this feature 






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avallabla to the hackers among us. 

With it's optional 9600 baud modem (about 
$75), the PK-900 is ready to keep up with the 
world of packet as ft grows. By the time you 
read this, PACTOR will be a standard feature, 
no longer an opiion. Cuireni owners without 
PACTOR should contact AEA concerning the 
upgrade. 

Dual Port 

The big question I hear about the PK-900 
concerns its dual-port capabilities. Hams 
want to know just what it can do with the two 
ports. Here's the sax>p: Radio port one can 
do anything — any mode the controiler is ca- 
pable of. Port two, on the other hand, is re- 
stricted io packet — HF or VHP. This is full si- 
multaneous operation. Unlike the PK*232 
whose two ports were selectable by a switch, 
the PK*900 can keep your VHP packet sta- 
tion on the air while you work AMTOR. or 
PACTOR. or any other mode on port 1. To 
me, this is what duat-port ops should be. 
Keep in mirKl that AEA's engineers designed 
this box to be used in the shack, noE as a 
node in a packet network. Its features and ca- 
pabilities are targeted to that market. 

PACTOR 

Yes, the PK-900 does PACTOR. This 
mode is a lot of fun, combining the qualities 
of packel and AMTOR for exceHent weak-sig- 
nal performance. The PK-900's inherently ex- 



cellent HF performance is available In 
PACTOR mode, too. You will find plenty of 
PACTOR traffic on 10 and 20 meters. It 
sounds like an AMTOR station on barbitu* 
rates. This mode will probably eventually re- 
place AMTOR, since it works better for most 
amateur operatk)ns. 

Using the 900 

If you are familiar with AEA hardware, the 
PK-900 will not present any surprises. The 
untfs autobaud routine easily sets the data 
rate at initiai startup, reducing a lot of diffi- 
culty lor new users- The manual provides 
a thorough section on setup and connection 
of the unit. Once again I am forced to say 
that, while AEA's manuals contain lots of in- 
formation, their organization affects ease of 
use a little more than I would like. (A diplo- 
mate way of sayir^g I donl care for the manu- 
aL) On the other hand it does include the 
most important information: connector 
pinouts, schematics, and a complete com- 
mand summary. 

In my opinion, there is only one woy to use 
the PK-900! with AEAs new PC Pakratt for 
Windows. This program, which is reviewed 
elsewhere in this issue^ makes using the PK- 
000 a reai pleasure. Not only does PR WIN 
know about every bell and whistle, it also pro- 
vides concurrent access to the two radio 
ports — a neat trick, ft you can't njn Windows, 
you should seriously consider buying a pro- 



gram that knows about the PK-900. There 
are DOS and Macintosh versions of Pakratt 
available from AEA. as well as third-party ter- 
minal programs that work with the unit* While 
the 900 can be operated from the command 
line, it is a complex piece of equipment ar\6 
wiEt have a very steep learning curve without 
the computerized assistance. 

Performance 

What else can f say? The PK-9O0 performs 
very well. It is directly comparable to the PK- 
232. In fact, in side-by-side testing, the two 
units were indistinguishable. Both showed ex- 
cellent HF pertormanoe — especially noted in 
poor conditions or with weak signals, VHF 
performance was stellar as well, but of 
course it had better be. If a TNC has trouble 
on VHF packet, something is wrong. If you 
want some opinions on PK-900 performance, 
you can ask some PK-232 owners what they 
think of their controllers — you're bound to firxJ 
several on the local repeater 

Concfuslon 

Teamed up with PC Pakratt for Windows 
and a pair of tiansceivers, the PK-900 is the 
heart of a truly state of the art digftal ham sta* 
tlon. The PK-900 costs a bit more than the 
PK-232, but the difference in cost is reflected 
in the capabittties of the box. If ^e additional 
outEay doesn't scare you off, you won't be dis- 
appointed with the PK-900. 



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38 73 Amateur Radfa Today • August 1 993 





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Julieboard 



Number 1Q on your Feedback card 



An easy-to-build DDS synthesizer for the PC printer port. 



by Bnjce Hodgkinsort VE3JfL 



Every Si) often, a technology development 
comes along which radically and permanent- 
ly alters the landscape of amateur radio — spark 
CO CW, AM to SSB, vacuum tubes to solid-state, 
and so forth. Each of these new developments 
has made possible things which could only be 
dreamed of before, but quickly become taken for 
granted. The introduction of direct digitaJ syn- 
thesis (DDSX a DSP-related technique, has been 
one such advance in the RF design field. At first, 
DDS-based gear coyld be afforded only fay the 
military, but the state of the art has now ad- 
vanced to the point where new commercial and 
amateur radio designs include il as a standard 
feature. 

Why DDS? 

Jhe best way to answer that question would 
be to take a look at the disadvantages inherent in 
the old techniques. Traditionally, VFOs (includ- 
ing those based on phase-locked loops) have em- 
ployed analog LC oscillators dependent on me- 
chanical and physical characteri.'^tics for 
frequency control. Altliough analog os- 
cillators are appealing due to their ap- 
parent simplicity, they fall prey to the 
usual analog type bugaboos: calibration 
error, drift, phase noise, excessive lock- 
up lime, etc. This means that designs 
which use analog frequency control 
can — and usually do — lead to align- 
ment, debugging and calibration has- 
sles which then require expensive 
equipment and time to fix. For those 
working with phase-lock loops, there is 
the additional problem of making the 
frequency resolution vs. lockup time 
vs. capture/lock range tradeoffs, which 
invariably compromise performance 
and/or force the designer to go to multi- 
ple loops, mixers, filters, etc. 

With DDS, on the other hand, a few 
chips on a board slightly larger than a 
business card can implement a wide- 
band oscillator which givesr 

to 1 6 MHz coverage 
0.007 Hz frequency resolution 
Virtually instantaneous 

switching time 
No drifl/no calibration 
Excellent spectral quality 
Simple interface via PC 

printer port 

So, I designed one. This board 
(which fve named the "Juheboard**) is 
easy to build and is intended for use as 
a building block to add digital tuning 
capability to home-brew equipment. 

40 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 



Why the PC Parallel Port? 

The first part of this question really asks, 
"Why the PC?" The DOS computer has made its 
way to a very high number of amateur stations, 
doing such jobs as log-keeping, packet radio, 
word processing, satellite tracking, et cetera. The 
price has come down to the point where (occa- 
sionally) first-generation PCs are actually avail- 
able free for the taking if one is at the right place 
at the right time! TTie software required to drive 
this oscillator is so simple that it will run on any 
DOS machine, right down to the humblest one- 
floppy system, which means that if a PC actually 
has to be acquired for the specific purpose of 
running this oscillator, il needn't cost more than 
a nominal amount. 

The second reason for using the PC is that it is 
a fine platform from which to develop and im- 
plement control functions via software: The 
*Tront panel" can take any form the user wants, 
changes can be made at will without having to 
modify or junk hardware, and functions can be 




easily done which would be difficult, if not im- 
possible, to do with dedicated hardware. Rather 
than being stuck with one hard-wired approach, 
the user has a software "playground'* in which 
his only limitations are imagination and time 
available for programming. 

Finally, code can be written, modified, and de- 
bugged on the same machine on which il runs — 
allowing the use of widely available and reason- 
ably priced development tools. 

Tlie second part of this question is, "Why the 
parallel port?" Why not do a plug-in (slot resi- 
dent) version? The first answer is dial not all PCs 
(lap-tops, for example) have plug-in slots avail- 
able for another board. Also, many PC owners, 
especially those without a technical background, 
are not really keen on tearing apart a working 
system just to install another board which then 
has to be configured and set up on a particular 
address location. This is a real problem if the PC 
belongs to somebody else or the oscillator has to 
be moved often. 

The parallel printer port offers a "plug 
and play" alternative: Almost every PC 
has a printer port and few indeed are 
those computer users who aren't capable 
of guiding a DB-25 connector onto the 
end of a cable. Also, a plug-in board ap- 
proach forces the user to install the oscil- 
lator inside the PC itself— which can 
cause noise problems, as well as impose 
limitations on where the equipment can 
go. With the parallel port approach, the 
equipment can be located a long distance 
away from the PC and driven via a long 
extension/ribbon cable for remote opera- 
lion. Finally, the parallel port, being non- 
bus-specific, can be replicated with any 
simple TTL six- bit register. For example, 
ihere is no reason why an appropriately 
programmed single chip microcomputer 
(such as a Motorola '68705 or Intel 
*8051) couldn't replace the PC for those 
who really object to having to drag 
around a large, bulky PC just to drive a 
tiny little board. With a single chip mi- 
crocomputer, an entire HF rig could be 
made to fit into a shirt-pocket-sized pack- 



age! 



Photo A, Julie and her board 



Circuit Description 

The circuitry for the Julieboard fits on 
a small two-layer printed circuit board 
about 2.5" X 4,5". On one end is the DB- 
25 connector for the printer cable and the 
other end has the BNC output and pow» 
er/exlemal -clock connectors, Power input 
needs are not critical — anywhere from 
about +7 VDC to -1-12 VDC will do. The 
input is poliirity-prolected so if the polar- 




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CIHCLE 54 OM READER SERVICE CARD 



ity is wrong, no damage will be done— it jusl 
won't work. The incoming DC voltaec is regu- 
lated down lo the +5V level required to run the 
on 'board logic. The only restriction regarding in- 
put voltage is to keep it high enough to over- 
come voltage regulator dropout and low enough 
to keep regulator power dissipation at a reason- 
able level. (This circuit draws about 200 mA and 
the difference between the input voltage and 
+5V outpiit is dumped as heat at about 200 mW 
per excess volt). 

The largest IC» a 28-piD DIP package {a Harris 
HSP45102) contains the actual DDS synthesizer 
logic right up to the sine PROM-ouiput. This de- 
vice is clocked at a 40 MHz rate by a clock oscil- 
lator module and produces a new 12-bit binary 
word at its output pins every clock cycle. The fre- 
queiicy increment is determined by a pair of in- 
ternal 32-bit shift registers which arc loaded via 
TTL bit-sequences driven from the parallel port. 

The 74HC14 is used as a buffer between the 
"outside world'' and the Harris DDS chip--it 
provides input signal conditioning and serves as 
a buffer for the more expensive DDS device. 
Likewise, the 74F132 performs a conditioning 
and buffering function between on-board logic 
and the outside world. It performs an automatic 
line select function for the extemai clock: If an 
external clock signal is applied, the board logic 
automatically selects that signal, saving the user 
from having to configure any jumpers. 

The output of the Harris DDS chip represents 
a 1 2 -bit binary sample of the desired waveform 
at the time of each clock tick; before it can be of 
much use, this binary output must be converted 
into an analog voltage, The Harris CA3338 video 
digital-to-analog converter (a 16-pin DIP pack- 
age) converts the digital outputs into correspond- 
ing analog levels at the 40 million samples per 
second rate. This level of performance was un- 
heard of several years ago and was one of the 
reasons why DDS systems were so expensive 
when they first came out. Things have changed. 

The output from the DAC looks hke a sine 
wave made up of little tiny "steps" — 256 differ- 
ent levels, to be exact. (One small compromise in 
ihis design was made by using an eight-bit DAC 
rather than a 12-bit DAC but the four ''wasted" 
binary outputs have such a small impact on the 
output that the savings in cost easily justified the 
change. With the 12-bit DAC, ihe sine wave 
would be made up of 4,096 different levels of 
steps,) 

"Wait a minute," one might say, "That's 
noise— I don't want THAT on my transmitter 
output." Without getting too deeply into sam- 
pling theory, let me say that "that noise," is al- 
most completely insignificant. Look at the 
"made-out-of-litlle-sieps" sine wave again. 
Think of this as an absolutely perfect sine wave 
with a superimposed noise consisting of those 
steps. See how small and how much higher in 
frequency (than the sine wave) is that noise 
waveform? It is no problem to filter the noise 
out — done by the low-pass filter module located 
on the board. 

The filler module implements a seventh order 
elliptic foW'pass filter in a lO-pin SIP package. 
The space taken by a discrete version of this fil- 
ter could easily take up half again as much room 
as the remainder of the circuitry. Since this de- 

42 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 



10 

20 
^J 
40 
SO 
^O 
70 
SO 

9i:s 

1 10 
120 
130 
14-0 
ISO 
160 
170 
IBO 
170 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
2£^0 
270 
2B0 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
40 
S50 
360 
370 
3S0 
390 
400 
410 
420 



CLS: LOCATE l^lsPPtl^T 



PRINT" 

PRINT 
PRINT" 
PRINT" 
PR I NT- 
PR SMT" 
PRINT 
PR I NT " 
BOSUB 220 

ASC(Af) = 

ASC(AIJ) : 

ASC(A^> ■■ 

ASQtAt) ■' 

ABCtA*) : 
ABC (Alt) 
ASC(A*) 



JulieBoard 200 Con1: roller 



Bruce H o dcj f;: i n b o n 
JUL200.&AS Apr 



VE3JIL 
1^/93 



□ ptiona? ar©; 






for new frejquency 
to quit" 

to increment by lOOHs 
to decrement bv lOOHz 



^% 
IF 
IF 

IF 
IF 

ir 

IF 
IF 
IF 
GOTO 110 



IF L.E:r4(A$) = u 
46 THe:N GrJ5UE! 
62 THEN GOSUB 
44 THEN (50SUD 
ho THEN KDSUE: 

■ 102 THEN GOSUB 220 
: 70 THEN eOBULH 220 

: 113 TWEH SOO 

■ 81 THEN 500 



Fr *sque nc y iYHz) 
110 



THEN 
310 
310 
330 






* dt^crem£?nt 
' de;'Crt::fnGnt 
'^ incr<i?fnent 
"^ i ncreirpt^nii 
' new F for 
^ new F for 
'quit if q 
' q LI. it if Q 



for 
rur 
for 
for 
"f " 
"F" 



key 

key 
kgiy 



key 
key 



15, 
1^, 



isPRiNT "New Frequency iV-'My.) 
21; INPUT HP 
Is PR I NT ^' 

1600O THEN 220 

THEN 220 
LOCATE 9, 39: PRINT " 
LOCATE 9 , 39 : PH: I NT NF : N-NF * 1 OCjO 



LOCATE 
LDCATE 
LOCATE 
IF MF 
IF NF 



n 



new F 



(SOBUB 

* 



Tf 



70: RETURN 



1^ 



N - N - lOOiIF N'^O THEN N -= O 

GOTO 340 

N = N + 100: IF N> 16000000** THEN N = 16000000# 

LOCATE 9, 39: PRINT " 

LOCATE 9, 39: PRINT N/ lOOO: CiOSUi:'^ 370s RETURN 

*NX = 3NT(N* 134-217744#) : OUT 988,127 
NX " INT(N4i I07.374r?5#> ; OUT 088,127 
FOR K ^ 31 TO STEP ■ 
KX = rNT(NX/^2'^-K) ) :NX 



deer lOOHs 



incr tOuHz 



ph*Eise 



intir 
inci^" 



32riH3: 
40NHZ 



■1 

= NX 



ck;< % 



2'"K> 



bit by bit 



440 
45L1 

4jb0 
470 

4et:) 

490 
!50t:J 



IF K^ = 1 

GOSUB 49U 
BDBUB 4 BO 
NEXT K 
FOR K = 1 



THEN 
GOTO 



430 
44 jj 



shift bit inta DDS 



TO 32: OUT age, 223: PUT S&S, 207: NEXT 



OUT flea, 127s RETURN 



OUT 

OUT 
END 



BSS^222:0UT 
833,223: OUT 



SSB,206:RETUF?N 
938,207: RETURN 



shift 
Ehift 



'^1 
"0 



nto DDS 
nto DDS 



Figure L Simple controller rottline written in GWBASIC. 



sign is a "building block," why not make it as 
smalJ as possible? 

Driver Software 

One of the nice things about using the PC to 
drive this unit is that a wealth of software devel- 
opment tools are available. The first thing that 
comes to mind probably would be GWBASIC or 
some other BASIC interpreter GWBASIC vias 
used to get the proto-type up and running and a 
listing of a simple coniroiler routine is shown in 
Figure 1 . 

To operate the board, the driver program must 
drive six DDS control lines: 
SDATA=* (shift data) 

SCLOCK^ (shift clock) 

(new value transfer) 

(enable phase accumulator) 

(shift enable) 

(BANK select) 
In normal operation, the software holds all 
four lines HIGH— enabling ENPHACC (allow- 
ing the oscillator to run) and disabling/idling the 
other three (SDATA^ SCLK^ and SHIFTEN). 
The choice of "HIGH" as the normal state is no 
accident: This allows the output frequency to be 
set from the computer, then disconnected from 
the PC without losing the programming. This 



XFER 
ENPHACC 
SHIFTEN 
BANKSEL=^ 



means that the printer port does not have to be 
tied up permanently— it can still be used to drive 
the printer while the synthesizer is still in opera- 
lion by means of a printer switch! 

To load a new frequency, die program disables 
XFER by driving it LOW, enables SHIFTEN by 
driving It LOW, then shifts in new data by clock- 
ing in 64 bits of updated ftiequency information 
via the SDATA* and SCLK* lines. Each data bit 
must be inverted (SDATA* = "0" to shift a "1" 
into the DDS) and is clocked-in with each 
HIGH-to-LOW transition on the SCLK* line. 
The new frequency pair i.^ transferred into the 
DDS once software re-enables the XFER line by 
driving it HIGH again. (If this line is aSlowed to 
stay active throughout the shift process, there 
would be 31 periods during which the output fre- 
quency would be set to a bogus value, possibly 
causing interference far off-band). 

If desired, the oscillator can be disabled by set- 
ting ENPHACC LOW, though this is not critical 

Selection between the two banks is done via 
the printer port STB* line. This is an open-col- 
lector line, so il can be driven from external 
equipment or from the PC Tlie PC can read the 
status of this line, so it can respond to extemai 
events via software. For example, a pair of fre- 
quencies could be programmed; one frequency 

Contimted on page 44 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 43 



JuUeboard 

Continued from page 42 

for "markr the oiher one for *'space," then keyed 

10 send RTTY, 

In a iransceivcr VFO appKcaiion, RTT or split 
frequency operaiion can be implemented by 
loading die appropriate iransnfiil and receive fre- 
quencies into Iheir respective banks. (This is a 
good example of software being used to replace 
hardware*} 

If an exiemal line drives this input, i[ should 
be a TTL open collector driver so thai it does not 
cause or suffer damage if the computer should 
drive the line LOW. This "wired-OR" scheme 
(where if one source or the other or both drive 
LOW, the line gets dragged LOW) implements an 
interna] drive/external drive scheme which re- 
quires no hardware configunition or setup. 

CoQstnicting the Hardwane 

The circuit is not difficult to duplicate and can 
easily be built with wire-wrap. Because high fre- 
quencies arc involved, it must be built with the 
proper techniques or ii will not work ai all! If 
you are not famiEiar with high-speed logic, a 
commerciaHy fabricated blank PCB or a wired- 
and-iesied board (available from the author) is 
probably the safest approach. 

A high quality circuit board with a low-induc- 
lance ground is an absolute must— my standard 
technique is to use prototype boards with the fat 
copper strips running up the IC center lines and 
bridge the strips cross ways with a cross-grid 
buih up out of solder-saturated SOLDER-WICK 
laid along the boani. Don't even think of using 
one of those copperless "^protoboards-" Plan the 
layout ahead of time to leave room for ihti IC 
sockets and decoupling capacitors. 

The IC sockets must be high quality machined 
gold contact t>^pcs — the cheap leaf types are not 
suitable due their high profile (needless lead in- 
ductance) and poor reliabiUty, I have often seen 
them fail, but Tve never seen a gold machined 
contact fail yet They are expensive (often cost- 
ing more than the chips they hold), but they are 
cheap aggravation insurance. 

Place the sockets in their final resting places 
and wire in their ground pins. These must be 
near zero in length and the widest practical 
width. My usual practice is to dedicate the bot- 
tom-side copper strip (running up the center of 
the IC pin-rows) to ground and solder the IC 
ground pins directly to that 

After all, the IC socket's ground pins have 
been hooked up and the decoupling capacitors 
have been installed. Decoupling capacitors 
MUST be placed at the power supply pins of the 
HSP45102 DOS chip (8.22). the CA3338 video- 
DAC (I3,I6K the clock module (14). and the 
74F132 (14). The 74HC14 is not a hi^ speed 
pan, but it should be decoupled also. Keep the 
leads of the decoupling caps short — the body of 
the capacitor should just about touch the power 
pin being decoupled! An cighth-tnch lead length 
is too long. On the DDS chip, the IC designers 
conveniently placed a ground pin immediately 
adjacent to each power pin so that the decoupling 
caps can exactly bridge power/ground with rnxo 
lead length — this dictates the use of capacitors 
with O.r lead spacing. Use 0,1 jiF as speci- 
fied — don*t try to 'Improve'" the decoupling by 

44 73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1993 



(A) 





UK 



O 



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J 



• • ••••#•• 




# # 



a. 



f 



• • 




(C) 




: •• • •• 

•••••••• 



••••••• 



• • 



Figure 2, A} PC iop foil paiiem; B) PC botiontfoil paltem; 



using higher values of capacitances Higher ca- 
pacitance values tend be more inductive and 
have a lower self-resonant frequency. Above its 
sclf-resonani frequency, a capacitor looks induc- 
tive and couid make the situation worse than if it 
wercn'l there! Once die decoupling caps are in- 
stalled* wire up the +5V bus to the sockets. At 
this point there should be vinuaJly inrmite DC 
resistance between the +5V and ground lines. 

Next, install ihe 7805 regulator and its diodes. 
A heal sink with thermal compound on the regu- 
lator is a musu as it will dissipate about M/2 
walls with +12V input and can get hot to the 
touch. If you know for sure that the input voltage 
will always be +12V, a 22 ohm 2W scries resis- 
tor can be placed in the power input line to help 
drop the voltage and decrease regulator dissipa- 
tion. My usual rule of thumb: If I can't hold my 
finger on a heatHlissipating device> it's running 
loo hot. 

When building something, it is wise to take a 
"divide-and-conquer" approach by doing the 
project stage- by-siage and testing it after each 
round of construction. This is a good time to 
make the first test — better to fry one cheap regu- 
lator now than a board filled with expensive 
parts later! Apply power to the unpopulated 
board and confirm that the regulator output 
equals +5V and that +5V appears at all power 



supply plus and OV shows up at all ground pins. 
Ch^k resistances between the ground pins wiih 
an ohmmeter to confirm that all '^groijnd*' pins 
are indeed tied to ground. Now, install resistor 
networks RNl and RN2 along with Ul and wire 
up all the signals involving these devices, right 
up to and including the DOS chip, U2, In the 
breadboard version, I wired up diagnostic LEDs 
to the outputs — a great aid for software develop- 
ment and for verifying dial the right LPT port is 
being used to "talk'* to the board. Power up the 
board and probe U2 pins 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, and 
17— all of which should be a logic LOW. U2 
pins II and 18 should be HIGH, Short the fol- 
lowing DB-25 pins one by one to ground and 
look for these responses: 
DB25, pin 1 U2, pin 9 goes HIGH 

DB25, pin 2 U2, pin 13 goes HIGH 

DB25, pin 6 U2, pin U goes HIGH 

DB25, pin 7 Ui pin 1 7 goes HIGH 

DB25, pin 8 U2, pin 1 2 goes HIGH 

DB25. pin 9 U2, pin 10 goes HIGH 

The next phase requires an HF receiver and a 
PC running die Julieboard driver software. Wire 
up the oscillator module and install U2. (Bear in 
mind that the DDS chip is specified as being 
ESD-sensiiive by Harris and can be damaged or 
even destroyed by improper handling. If possi- 
ble, handle this chip only at a properly equipped 



JULlLl 

MODEL 200 



Ji ii'-n 



RF SrNlHESJZER 




(B) 




(D) 



C) PC drilling templaie; D) pans placement diagram. 



ESD-pmtectcd workslation wilh wrist straps and 
an anti-.^taljc worktop.) 

The 74F132 NAND gate U5 and its associated 
parts may be installed now. 

Connect ihc PC to Ihc Julieboard DB25 fe- 
male connector via an appropriate cable (male 
DB25/male DB25 straight-through) and power 
up Lhc board Select a test frequency (this isn't 
critical, any Trequcncy between I MHz and 16 
MHz wiji do) and tunc tbc receiver (CW or SSB 
mode) to that frequency. A cicaf continuous car- 
rier should be audible fairly close to the expected 
ftequency. (Use a short piece of wire in close 
proximity, but not touching, the boani as the an- 
tenna for the receiver). Try tuning the signal in 



1CX> Hz increments and listen for the correspond- 
ing changes in pitch. If it works « . . congratula- 
tions, you're almost there! If not, look for activi- 
ty <Hi U2 output pins 27-28 and 1-6: Jf they arc 
completely dead^ try verifying the presence of 
the 40 MHz TTL clock at U2 pin 16 and confirm 
proper U2 hookup. Check that: 



vcc 


pin 22 = +5V 


vcc 


pin8 = +5V 


BANKSEL 


pin 9 = LOW 


ENPHACC 


pin 12 = LOW 


LOAD* 


pin 18 = HIGH 


Qm> 


pin 7 = GND 


GND 


pin 15 = GND 


GND 


pin 21= GND 



Try feeling the case of the DDS chip. If it is 
very hot, the problem likely involves the DDS 
chip itself; if it is stone cold, the problem could 
either be a faulty clock module or a dead DDS 
chip. A normally working DDS chip should be 
slightly warm — if this is the case, suspect a prob- 
lem with the programming or control process* 
(Also check to see iftt is getting +5V!). 

Once DDS chip oj>era|ion has been verified^ 
wire and populate the CA3338 vido) DAC (U3) 
and the filter module (FLl) sockets, observing 
Ihe saRK: ESD precautions as for U2* The synthe- 
sizer output should look like a perfect sine wave, 
except for low frequencies which will show 
some "staircasing," courtesy of the Di/A convcr* 
sion process. Finally, verify the EXTERNAL 
CLOCK function with an external clock — if il 
worits OK, then the ccmsiruction of the synihe- 
sizer is complete. Have fun with the new toy! 

CoodiisioD 

1 have had computer-controlled DDS syndie- 
sizers in my shack for several years now and 
would almost rather give up my scope or mulfi- 
meter than do without them — they were well 
worth the development cost So far, they have 
been used for: 
^Frequency spotting 
•Software-controlled VPO 
•VFO for homc-ttfew direct conversion receivers 
•Digital reU^o-fit to analog equipment 
•Remote tuning of transmitteiyreceivers 
•Frcquency-hopping/spread spectrum work 
•Programmable secondary finequency standard 
•Crystal/crystainilcr characterization 
•Crystal oscillator substitution 
•ATE signal generator/sweeper 

I found that direct conversion receiver circuits 
worked especially well with this osc il I ator— tun- 
ing via software on the computer screen was a 
real novelty and the sound was particularly crisp 
and clear. Perhaps the next challenge will be a 
home-brew digital transceiver! 

Personal Note 

Why "Julieboard"? Well, back when 1 did my 
first DDS-for-a-PC design (this is my third), I 
needed a name for the project At the dmc, my 
second-oldest daughter, Julie, was in her active 
toddler phase and the name seemed appropriate 
for a board originally intended for frequency 
hopping development work. Since I have three 
other daughters, 1 suppose I'll have to do at least 
three other boards so that Julie's sisti^:s don't feel 
left out! 



Continued on page 46 











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73 Amateur Radio Today •Angu^, 1993 W 



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Figunt 3. Julieboand schematic. 



46 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 



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Selecting Variable 
Capacitors, Part li 

Last month we inUoduced the topic df 
variable capacilors by showing two dif- 
fereni types: straight line Jrequeffcy and 
straight ine caf^crtance. We examiriMl 
their diffefent styte of conslnjction- We 
also looked at two-section capacitors 
shJ how Ihey are used to tLff>e doitt^ly- 
tuned RF droiils and the RF/LO circuits 
of syperhelerodyne radkJ receivefS. In 
ttiis month's coiumn we will take a look 



at transmitting variables, special vari- 
ables, and some tnteresting related top- 
ics. 

Differf^ntjal and Sptft-Stalor 
Capacitors 

Two spectal forms of air triable ca- 
l^dtor are the spOt-stator arKi the differ- 
^>tiai, Ihe symbols for ihese devices are 
shown in Rgure 1. "me spH-stator (Fig- 
ure 1A} uses a common set of rotor 
plates, but two sete of stator plates. In 
cHher words, it is simiar to a two-sedion 
variable, tHJt with a convmm set of rotor 
p^les rather than two sets. The capaci- 
tances o( each section of the split-stator 




5 



CIA 



Parallel 



I 



C!B 



(•) 




CTA 




01 




GIB 



02 



I 




HI 

tS«* TwctI 



42 

((b') Unknown 
^Y^ Impedence 



m 



Figure 2, A) ATU circuit using spfit-stator capacitor; B) Antenna RF bridge usirrg 
tMersntist capaclUir, 




Photo B. Thf&e-section 3X-365 pF variable capadtof. 
48 73 Amateur Radio Today • August 1 993 



capacitor trac^ each other Any given 
change of shaft position causes the 
same capaalance on txith C1A and CIB 
of Fi9ure 1A. The differefttial capacitof 
[Rgure 1B) also has a split-stator piale 
set biJt Ihey are configured with respect 
to the rotor such that the "shading' in- 
creases on one as il decreases on the 
other. Thus, C\k Is at maximum capaci- 
tance when CIB Is at minimum, and vtae 
versa. A 2X-100 pF di^erentlal capacitor 
is shown in Photo A. The lotor is set to 
mkj-ranga so that you can see cieariy 
ttie (^>posed stalor plates. As Ihe rotor 
moves in one cSrection or Itie Qither, it will 
shade more of one set and less of the 
other 

Figure 2 shows how spfft-statDr and 
drflerential capacitors are used in practi- 
cal drcuits^ The cincuil of Figure 2A is an 
antenna tuner for parallel feeder trans- 
mission line. The 50 ohm coaxial cable 
from the transmitter Is connected to L2, 
whfch is a link coitpiing to the main in* 
ductor Lt. This inductor has two taps, 
one for each wire of the parallel trans* 
mtetttm lire. ^ order to tune the hduc* 
tor, a split-stalor capacjor, with tie rotor 
grounded, is connected across the 
length of LI. 

The circuit in Figure 2B is an RF 
bnkJge that can t^e used to measure an- 
tenna Impedance, or at least the resistive 
component of antenna impedance. The 
bridge is balanced when the ratk» of the 
two halves are equal, or when: 



^^c 



= R1/Z 



1B 



(where Z is ttie unknown impedance). 
Fiesistor R1 Is generBSy set to the sys- 
tem impedance, typically SO dtim& or 75 
ohms, in most amateur radio applica- 
tions It is penrriBsable to use a 68 ohm 
reststor tor R1 ni order to accommodate 
both 50 ohm and 75 ohm systems with 
only a small error in each, Resrstor R1 
must be a non-inducttve type, such as 
carbon composition or metat film. Excila^ 
tKDn is provk!ed by a signal genemtor ap- 
plied loJt. 

Large Varfa tiles and TransmrttJng 



Ffiolo B shows a targe air variable ca- 
pacilor thai was salvaged from an old ra- 
dk) receiver. It is designed to prtwide 10 
to 365 pF of capacitance in each section. 
In superheterodyne radio receivers, this 
capacitor would be connected such that 
one section tunes the RF ampfifier input, 
the second section tunes the RF ampnft- 
er output (or. if no RF enptifier is used, 
the sectk>ns woukl tune a doii^-tuned 
LC resonant tank drcUt), and the thind 
section (wrth padder capacitor) would 
tune the local osdtiatof. It you go back 
far erwugh. when "tuned radk? frequen- 
cy (TRF) receivers were the order ol the 
day, all three sections were used to tyne 
the RF amplifiers (arKl there was no LO 
m those receivers). 

Other applications for capacitors such 
as the one pictured in Photo B are found 
where all three sectkxis are connected in 
paraJlel. For example, ttie kiadiig control 
of p^^etwork output tank orcuils (used in 
vacuun tube fBial RF amplitiers in tjans- 
mitters). often require BOO- 1200 pF o4 ca.- 
pacit^ioe. The RF vottages are <iuile tow 




Photo A Differef^ai capacitor from au- 
thor's jurtk box (some "junk'—the 
bhexfy thing's 0xpefrsfv^. 

because the output impedance (50 
ohms) is low, so it is not necessary to 
use wide '"high voltage' spacing for the 
loading control (in most cases . . . always 
calculate for any given power level ard 
allow a margin). Another 3X parallel situ- 
ation Is found in IF and VLF receiving 
anierwia bops wtiere high c^>adtance Is 
needed. Also, some transmitting loops. 
as wdl as many receiving kx»ps. use a 
ikigie turn input/output loop (depending 
on pov)t of view, RX or TX) to couple a 
multi-tum loop antenna to ttw rig. The 
mutti-tum loop can be resonated with a 
retatively small <^pacitarMs, but the sin- 
gle-tum coupling loop typically wants to 
see a very high capacitance. 

Photo C shows a transmitting varl- 
able" trat can be used In hi^ power (2 
kW) Rf power ampEifiers and antenna 
%Mmg units. What mak^ this a irans- 
wHSkn^ variable is tie wide spacing be- 
tween Itie plates. Wkler spacing means 
thai ItiB breakdown voltage of tie air in- 
sulator tietween tie ptates is ktoreased 
But wider spacing also reduces capad- 
tanoe, so the plates tend to be larger and 
more numerous Ihan in smaller capaci- 
tors of the same value. 

Periiaps Ihe ultimate tn transmitting 
variables Is the vacuiin capacitor shown 



o 


iciA 











l 

t CIB 




l"# 


1 1 


i 


> 


CIA 




CI 


B 






1 


i 


w 



Rgure 1. A) SpUhstator caf^citor sym- 
txM: B) DiffBrentiaJ capacitof symM. 



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73 Amateur Radio Today August. 1993 49 





Photo C. TfansmiUifjg 
In Photo D. AlUiough vac j urn variables 
tend to be quite high-priced. I bought ihis 
10-1 jOOO pF unit from Fair Radio Sales 
[see Table 1 ) for less than $40 a couple 
of years ago. This particular capacitor is 
fitted with a small DC motor and a re- 
versing relay. The capacitor is tuned by 
operating the rnotor, altliough It appears 
ttiat removing the motor apparatus would 
make It possible to directly tune the ca- 
pacitor. 

CaAculatmg the Tank Circuit Cofnpo- 
mnt Values 

When we design an RF LC tank cir- 
cuit it is usually for a specified band of 
frequences. For example: 3,500 to 4.000 
kHz for the 75/30 meter band (we actual- 
ly want to tune a small overlap, so 3,490 
lo 4,010 kHz Is what we'll use). We need 
to know what values of inductor and trim- 
mer capacitor to use witt^ specified main 
tuning capacitors. We first select a trial 
variable capacitor for the main tuning 
job. Look in a catalog for the mtnlmum 
and maximum capacitances. For this ex- 
ample, I selected a Hammarlund UC- 
100-M from Ocean State Electronics 
(see Table 1) with a capacitance range of 
7.7 to 100 pF. Refer to Figure 3 as you 
use this procedure: 



air vafiable capacitor. Photo D. Vacuum variable 

1 . Detemiine minimum and maximum capacitance of C1 (7.7 - 100 pF). 



2. Calculate dC: CI 



max 



C1„.„ = 100 pF -^ 7.7 pF = 92.3 pF. 



3. Detemfiine the required frequency ratio {F.R.): 






4010 kHz 
3490 kHz 



= 1.15 



4. Calculate the required capacitafice ratio (C.R.) by squaring tile frequency ratio: 

CR. = (F.Fl.p^ (1.15)2 = 1,32 

5. Calculate the minimum total capacitance from: 

_AC_ 92.3 pF ^2ee.4pF 
C.R.'l 1.32 4 ^ 



'min. 



6. Catcuiate the maximum totaf capacitance: 

Cmax = ^min + AC = 2B8.4 pF = 92.3pF - 380,7 pF 

7. Calculate the inductance by selectirig either maximum or minimum capaci- 
tance, and the lowest or highest frequency (as indicated by the capacitance value 
selected). I selected the nnaximum capacitance (380,7 pF) and minimuni frequency 
(3p490 kHz) combinafon: 



L = 



10^ 



43r2C3 . C 



pH= 



10^ 



t4i^K3,490,OOOHz)2 (3.807x lO-^^^F) 



== 5.46 pH 



You can zT\Btk the calculation with the 
normal resonartce fomiula (below) to see 
if the connect frequencies are obtawied at 
the minimum and maximunr) total capaci- 
tance (which correspond to the minfmum 
and maximum values of C1 plus other 
capacitances m ttie circuit). The calcula- 
tions should be accurate to within round- 
ing errors {my calculator showed 3489+ 



and 40O&+ kHz), The resonance equa- 
tion is: 

1 

7 



F = 



2k 



LC 



Barker & Williamson 
10 Canal Street 
Bristol PA 19007 
(215) 788-55S1 (voice) 
(215) 788-9577 (fax) 
Trar^smltting varfables. 



Pair Radk? Sales 

1016 E. Eureka 

Box 1105 

Lima OH 45B02 

(419) 227-6573 (voice) 

(419) 227-1313 {faxj 

Transmitting and receiving variables 

(mostly surplus). 

Ocean Slate Bectronlcs 

P.O. Box 1458 

6 Industrial Drive 

Westerly Rl 02891 

(401) 596-3080 (voice) 

(401) 596-3590 {fax} 

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Transmitting and receiv'mg variabl&s (a lot of 
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Table 1. Variable Capacitor SuppE»er& 

Oren Elliott Products, Inc, 
128 W. Vine St, 
P.O. Box 638 
Edgerton, OH 43517 
(419) 298-2306 {voice) 
(419) 298^3545 (fax) 



Manufacturer, wfiofesales, and retailer of 
all sizes of transmittng and receiving vari- 
able capacitors, variably inducjtors, and 
vernier drives. Price list of standard prod- 
yets is available. 



M3plin Eiectronics 

RO. Box 3 

Rayleigh, Sussex, SS6 SLR 

ENGLAND 

+44 (0) 81 523-5977 (voice) 

+44 (0) 81 523-4879 (fax) 

Receiving variables, bott\ UK and USA 
standard values. 



Wherer F is In hertz, L is in henrys, 
and C is in farads. 

In actual practtce you will use a trim- 
mer capacitor (C2 in Figure 3), and pos- 
sibly a fixed capacitance (C3), to make 
up the difference between tfie required 
capacitance and the values obtained 
from 01^ For Bx^mplep we need a mini- 
mum capacitance of 268.4 pF, but C1 
has a minimum of 7.7 pF. Thus, we need 
a total of 288.4-7.7, or 280.7 pR The 



( 10- 1000 pF) capacitor. 

trimmer shotild have enough range to 
account for any tolerance errors in calcu- 
lation and the values of the parts. I se- 
lected a trimmer with a range of 8 to 100 
pF, with the idea of setting it approxi- 
mately in the middle of the range (Of 
about 46 pF ± a little bit). Thus far, of our 
required 280.7 pF, we've accounted for 
7.7 + 46 pF, or 53.7 pF. We need to find 
an additional 227 pF. By using a 220 pF 
fixed capacitor at C3, we leave 7 pF for 
strays. In some RF circuits this is a rea* 
sonab£e value for sprays, and tfte range 
of 02 (the '± litUe bif part) can make up 
for errors* In some Colpitts and Clapp 
osciliatofs, however, t^ere is a tremen- 
dous capacitance contributed by the ca- 
pacitlve voltaga divider feedback net- 
work, so Ihese calculations are wrong for 
that case. 

Sources of supply for variable capaci- 
tors include hamfests (but look out for 
the "sharks" who have inflated Jdeas of 
their capacitor's worth— "a crudded up 
transmitting variable is not wortli any- 
where near the high price commanded 
by a shiny new one ... at feast lo me"). 
Table 1 lists some of ttie places where 
IVe bought variable capacitors in the re- 
cent past. The listjr>g for Maplins in Eng- 
land can be used for Americans . . . they 
accept Visa and Mastercard. The bank 
card companies will convert the price 
from E to $. Be a little careful reading the 
Maplin catabg, by the way . . . cost more 
than $ ($l,52/£ as of this writing), so the 
actual price is higher than It appears In 
the listing). 




CI - Main Tuning 7.7 - 100 pF 
C2 — Trimmer 

C3 - Optic rtal FExed Capacitor 
Cs - Strays & Other Ckt, Cap. 



Figure 3. L-C resonant tank circwt for example caiculations. 



50 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 



In Memorium 



JAIMP 
SAKO HASEGAWA 

March 10, 1929 to June IZ 1993 

Founder, Chairman of the Board 

Yaesu Musen Ca, Lid, 

Ibkya Japan 



As an electronic engineer and amateur radio experimenter, 
Mr, Hasegawa introduced Single Sideband Radio telephony to 
amateur bands in Japan in 1956. He constructed SSB generators based 
on the works of his contemporaries in tfie US., and soon had many 
requests for complete transmitters and receivers, in 1959 he incorpo- 
rated Yaesu Musen Ql, Ltd. to meet the demand for this equipment- 
From his inspiration and under his guidance, the company developed 
the FT-IOI transceiver which revolutionized amateur radia His spirit 
of innovation and engineering excellence continued with ihe develop- 
ment of Yaesuls flagship transceiver, FT-IOOO, that has set a standard 
by which other top flight transceivers arc compared. Ml Hasegawa 
was known throughout the company as a hands-on president, taking 
personal interest not only in the lives and work of each of his employ- 
ees, but in everyone who chose to use 'V^su equipment. 

His call sign, JAIMP became well known in many countries. He 
was awarded the first Japanese RTTY WAC award in 1971, and 
remained active in amateur radio and associated activities throughout 
his lite. During the 1980's he co-founded and served as president of 
the Japan Amateur Industry Association. 

As a testimony to Mr. Haseg^wa's pioneering spirit and interest 
in technological advancement, Yaesu has become a leading manufac- 
turer of radio communications equipment throughout the world. 



YAESU U.S. A. 



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Number 12 on your Feedback <^rcl 



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Espace. The program began 15 years 
ago tJiroirgii ttie efforts of three groups 
in France: RACE (Radio Amateur Club 
de r Espace), ENSAE {rAeronautique el 
de i'Espiace), and CNE9 (National Cen- 
ter for ttie Study of Space). 

Many technical schools, uncversities 
and companies joined the partnership to 
get ARSENE in orbit. The design and 
construction of the spacecraft involved 
over 300 students and donations of 
time, money and components to build 
Ifie satellite and prepare a ground sta- 
tion for spacecraft controJ. 

The primary goal of the ARSENE 
program is to provide a satellite for ama- 
teur radio operators to use for experi- 
mental communications. The program is 
also devised to contribute to educational 
programs for satellite design and 



The Launch Campaign 

The rocket u&ed to send ARSENE to 
space was provided by Arianespace and 
marked the 56th Ariane launch vehicle. 
The launcher was first prepared for flight 
in December 1992 to carry a Hughes 
communications satellite. The Ariane 4 
rocket was configured with two solid- 
rocket, strap-on boosters, Tlie launch 
was canceled cfoe to technical concerns 
by Htjghes, The rocket was moved back 
to the preparation area and re-config- 
ured for two strap-on » liquid-fueled 
txwsters (42L configuration). 

The Ariane launcher stands over 55 
meters and weighs 362 metric tons at 
liftoff, tl is a Itiree-stage rocket using ex- 
otic fuel, asymmetrical dimethyl hy- 
drazine with nitrogen tetroxide, in the 
lower two stages and liquid hydrogen 
and oxygen in the third stage. Titis corh 
figuration was designed to take nearly 
3,000 kg of payload to a geostationary 
transfer OTt)it (GTO) with an apogee, or 
high point, of 36.000 km and a perigee, 
or tow point of 200 km. 

The countdown on May 11th pro- 
ceeded smoothly. Launch was nominal 
and all systems performed well. Both 
payloads were deiivered to GTO and re- 
leased to the customers; BETZDORF of 
Luxembourg for ASTRA tC and RACE 
for ARSENE. 

The Payloads 

The main payload for flight V-56 was 
ASTRA tC. It is the third spacecraft In 



tuyeri di 

bascui:e3went 



mONOPOU ¥HF 



BldDIFICATEUE 

IVANTENNE 



& PANNEADX 

SOLAIRES 

AfQa 




3 MONOFOLES 
UHF 

3 DIPOLE5 2 GHZ 



UNIES SOLAIRE5 
CAULEO 



TUYMKES 
ROTAHON 



JUFE INIEKFACI 
SANGLE 



Fljy*f DEPOSE 

DUSATELLEIl 



CELL' 
SOLAIKES 



TELES COT^ TEERESTKE 

GALILEO 




Photo A The Ariane 42L launch vehide m/ft two strap-on fiqutd boosters in prepa- 
fation forlauoch from Kourou, French Guiarja, May n, t9B3. (Anane^moe f^toto^t 



the direct-to-home Eiiropean TV satellite 
fleet, ASTRA 1C weigtis 2790 kg. and 
can carry 34 TV channels through 1S 
transponders. Stalsili^ation is three-axis 
and available power is 3300 wetts from 
the solar panels at the end of the satel- 
lite's estimated IS^year life. 

By comparison, ARSENE is very 
small at only 154 kg. The craft is spin- 
stabilized, has an estimated lifetime of 
Itiree years with an estimated end-of-life 
power of 42 watts provided by a sheath 
of gallium-arsenide sotar ceils. Com- 
pared to most hamsats however. AR- 
SENE is large, complex and powerful. It 
was designed to carry a Mode "B" digital 
commiinbations system using standard 
AX. 25 packet on three separate 70-cm 
uplinks to a single two-meter downlink. 
A second transponder was designed for 
linear operation using Mode "P (like 
Mode -S' on AMSAT-OSCAR-13, but 
with a downlink 46 MHz higtier). The up- 
link is 16 kHz wide and centered on 
435.100 MHz with a downlink centered 

Photo B. Liftoff of the Ariane 42L 
fauncf^r from Kourou, Frencfy Guiana, 
with ARSENE BfHi ASTRA iC on May 
11, 1993. (Arianespace photo,) 





Figure 1. Extemai ARSENE configumtion. 
52 73 Amateur Radio Today • August. 1 993 



Pfroto C. Vie ARSENE safeUHe undergoing fsnai checkout. 





Figure 2. Sequence of events foHowing SBpamtion from the Afiane launcher from 
the geostationary transfer orbit to the final orbiL 



Photo D. ARSENBtn Unai pr^amtion prior to launch. 



on 244S.540 MHz. High-speed CW 
telenretry is senf on 2446.470 MHz. 

tile Problem 

An amateur radio monitoring station 
on Reunion Island in the Endian Oc^an 
of the east a>ast of Africa was tfie first to 
be in range of ARSENE aftef retease to 
GTQ. The 2 meter downlir^k signal on 
145.975 MHz was expected but not 
heard. A second Reunton station also 
repoded no signal. 

Fortunately the S-band transmitter 
was working and the ARSENE control 
station FF1STA In France could receive 
telemetry on their 7 meter dish. Prepara- 
tions were made to fife the onboard 
tJODster rocket to raise the dangerously 
low perigee to the desired height of 
20,000 km. 

Several theories have tjeen suggest- 
ed conceming the siler^oe of the 2 meter 
!ransmi!1er. The most probat>le cause is 
a break in the cable from tfie transmrttef 
to the antenna or perhaps serious an- 
tenna damage. Signals have been de- 
tected or> the 2 meter downlink, but are 
so weak ihat only serious moonbounce 
stations have reported reception. The 
designers and builders m France will 
continue searchir^ for explanations and 
po^ibie cures. 

ft's TiRie for S-Band 

Ratfier than mourn the toss of AR- 
SE NE's two-meter Iransmftter, many sta- 
tjorrs have begun modifying and upgrad- 
ing their home stations to work witJi the 
new satelJite on Mode T." Any station 
capable of 500 to 1000 watts EIRP on 
435.100 MHz can hit the uplink. A 50- 
watt transmitter to a 10-dB gain antenna 
will work. For the downlink on 13cm 
more effort Js required. While A-0-13*s 
&-band transponder can be heard on a 
two-foot dish witii appropriate preamps 
and converters, ARSENE cannot The 
signals are nearly 10 dB down from A-0- 



13 levels TTtfe means that a ^-foof dish 
is needed, or some other an^y with simi- 
iar gam. The downtink frocpiGncy may re- 
quire some modirtcatiofis to existing S- 
band receive converters due to the 4S 
MHz difference with A-O-13's downlink. 

Artictes In recent issues of the AM- 
SAT Journal by Ed Kron^ KA9LMV and 
James Miller G3RUH show some Ideas 
on S-band gear for A-0-13 and AR- 
SENE. Ed also wrote "Elementary Mode 
S" In the March t991 issue of 73 de- 
scribing some of his efforts to get results 
without pain at 2400 MHz. 

Companies that provide receive con- 
verters and preamps include Down East 
Microwave (Bill Oison W3HQT) at (207) 
948-3741 and SSB Electronics (Jerry 
RodskJ K3MK2) at (717) B68-5643, For 
ARSENE reception, adapted six-foot or 




Photo £ View of the ARSENE intarrrat tx)oster for fmat orbit trmertion. 



larger TVRO dishes can provide the 
needed gain when used with a small he- 
lix antenna at the dish focal point. 

f\^ost of the pictures and figures 
shown were down ioaded from Kitsat- 
OSCAR-23 at 9600 bps in GiF image 
format. Further details on the satellite 
and its telemetry can be found in the 
March 1993 "Hamsats" column. AR- 



SENE represents a real challenge tor 
satellite enthusrasts. The DX opportuni- 
ties from its high eliptical orbit are excel- 
lent and well worth the effort to configure 
a station for S-band reception. When 
Phase 3-D (the next higti -orbit satellite) 
is launched a few years from now, the S- 
band system promises to be one of jhe 
most popular modes. 



4.SunlM 






1 - $epu&ti«nd*ARSENE 

«VbuHieffyiKw€<5 iavn/: 



f .Mb* i Jam in 



OKjarrenNAiE: 

£0000-360110 Km / degi^s 




4v4»«tr^]ttiK 

Ilk - MuAticA d*-frttit«4« 



£ Defpin Jvf 4u'« W7 - «0 tr ; mIa 



figure 3. The Urbite Imaie, ' or final Oftl^ pianned for ARSENE is very different from all previous hamsats, 

73 Amateur Radio Today* Augist. 1993 53 



Number 13 on your FeedliacK card 



Computer Control for 
Beam Antennas, Part 1 

Give your station a smart, new twist, 

by Ron Cole K40ND 



If you arc an experimenter, you have almost 
certainly seen bargain TV antenna rotators 
at hamfests and speculated about using them 
for ham antennas. You may have hesitated at 
buying an untested rotator even at five 
bucks. Hesitate and speculate no morel 
Those rotators work very well for 
lightweight VHF/UHF antennas, and can be 
easily fixed (in most eases). Furthermore, 
you don't even need to have the indoor con- 
trol box to make them work. Even if you al- 
ready own or plan to buy a heavy-duty rota- 
tor intended for ham use, most of the princi- 
ples in this article still apply, and may save 
you some bucks on repairs when rhose units 
fail. This article will also show you how to 
do automated pointing and/or tracking, in- 
cluding how to control the antenna via a joy- 
stick. Although it is aimed primarily at the 
use of TV antenna rotators and UHF anten- 
nas for satellite communications, this article 
will also teach you a tot about how to take 
full control of other rotators. In Part I we will 
look at how typical rotators work, how to 
control them electrically, and how to read out 
the azimuth and/or elevation. In Part II we 
will extend the concepts to computer inter- 
facing, automated pointing, and joystick con- 
trol. 



Rotator Basics 

The rotator motor itself is a surprisingly 
small device, running at about 3600 rpm, and 
geared down to produce the final antenna 
speed of about 1 rpm or less. The moior 
power, supplied through the control cable, is 
usually about 40 VAC derived from a trans- 
former in the control unit. There are actually 
three power connections to the motor. One of 
these is connected to one side of the 40 VAC 
winding; the other two control the direction 
of rotation. One of the big mysteries of rota- 
tors, direction control, is actually very simple 
(see Figure 1). A relatively large unpolarized 
capacitor (CI) is used to produce a phase 
shift between the other two motor power 
connections, and it is this phase shift which 
controls the direction of rotation. Thus, con- 
trolling direction only requires a switching of 
one side of the 40 VAC winding to one side 
or the other of the phase-shift capacitor. This 
is done inside the control unit as a part of the 
direction dial function* By the way, these ca- 
pacitors are a high-failure-ratc item: Almost 
every '*bad rotator'' I have found turned out 
to have a bad phase-shift capacitor. Fortu- 
nately, you can easily get a replacement at 
most appliance repair and electrical supply 
stores; they are known as "motor-run" capac- 



itors. They come in a wide range of values 
and are rated at voltages well above the 40 
VAC used in this application. All you have to 
do is find an approximate match to the one in 
your control unit; I have capacitors as much 
as 50% higher in value than the original one 
without any problems. Before I learned about 
motor-run capacitors I tried back-to-back 
electrolyrics and those apparently will not 
work. While this experience is only based on 
TV rotators, it almost certainly applies to 
other rotators as well. It's the first place to 
look when your rotator won*t rotate J 

lt*s not enough to just control the direction 
of rotation, of course. You also need to get 
feedback on position (i.e., azimuth), and to 
stop the rotation when the desired position is 
reached. In most TV rotator controllers the 
position feedback is produced by an elec- 
tromechanical coupling, driven by a 
solenoid. Refer again to Figure I . Within the 
rotator housing, and as a part of the step- 
down gearing, a rotating cam is used to close 
the contacts of a switch. The cam is higher 
up in the gear train and rotates much faster 
than the antenna. It can produce switch clo- 
sures for about every five degrees of antenna 
rotation (depending on the exact model). 
Each switch closure results in activating a 




Control Unit 



Hotator Housing 
A 



40 VAC 



110 VAC 




CI 
Phasing 
CapacKor 




Sotenatd 4 



7 



M&chanieal Drive 




Terminal 

Numbers 

lUtay Be 

Different 



Selector 
Dial 



Indicator 
Disk 



Figure I. Typical rotator and control box. 



54 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1993 



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^ ^^ QSK 5 Seif-containedj connects 

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CIHCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



solenoid in the control unit, and a mecha- 
nism connected to the solenoid turns the po- 
sition indicator. (It is the firing of that 
solenoid which produces the typical "clack 
. . . clack . . ," sound when the rotator is turn- 
ing.) A very messy set of mechanical and 
electrical components is used to cause the in- 
dication wheel to turn in the right direction, 
and to stop when the position indicator 
wheel is aligned with the direction dialed in 
by the user. 

Another, and !ess common, type of posi- 
tion readout scheme Involves using a second 
motor inside die control unit itself, and run- 
ning exactly in parallel with the motor in the 
rotator on the mast* This second motor has a 
similar step-down gear train, but all it does is 
drive the position indicator wheeL Again, a 
mechanical or electrical scheme is used to 
detect when the two dials match, and stop 
the rotator You can easily distinguish be- 
tween these two types of rotator and control 
units. The first type (with a switch in the ro* 
tator) requires a four-wire control cable 
(three for the motor, one for die switch); the 
second type needs only three wires in the 
control cable, 

Both of these types of position indicators 
are noisy and not easily adapted for any type 
of position readout other than the mechanical 
indicator dial, I have also found a few fail- 
ures in the mechanisms which are virtually 
impossible to repair. Fortunately, we will 
soon see how the whole control box can be 
thrown away (except the 40 VAC power 
transformer and phase-shift capacitor). 

There is one other feature of TV rotators 
which is important if your intended use is in 
a satellite antenna elevation system. This 
feature is the method for attaching the mast 
to the rotator. For easy adaptation to eleva- 
tion use, you need to find a rotator which al- 
lows the mast to pass completely through the 
housing (see Photo A). You may have to do 
some searching to find one of these; they 
seem to be of older manufacture. AH of the 
new rotators I have seen on the market are 
built so that the end of the mast rests on the 




Photo A. K40ND !s remote-controied rotating 2-meter yagi and 70 cm heilx antennas. 



rotator housing itself, or on a plate which is a 
molded part of the housing. If the latter type 
is the only one you can find, it may be possi- 
ble to carefully cut the plate off and allow 
the mast to extend beyond the housing in 
both directions. This approach is necessary 
since the elevation rotator will normally be 
mounted at the top of the vertical mast» with 
a horizontal boom extending out both direc- 
tions for the antennas themselves. (You may 
also want to use this type for an azimuth ro- 
tator, for the reason discussed below on us- 
ing potentiometers for position readout.) 



Now let's put together a better manual sys- 
tem, and one which is readily adapted to 
computer control, 

A New Control System 

It is trivialiy simple to construct a system 
to control motor direction and starting/stop- 
ping rotation. All it takes is the 40 VAC 
transformer, a good capacitor, and a center- 
off toggle switch (a good one is the Radio 
Shack #275-710, which is spring-loaded for 
the center-off position). See Figure 2. When 
you hook up the power wires to the rotator 




6.3 VAC 







40 VAC 



phasing 

Capacitor 
St o f — 



T 



■o- 



.1000 mF 
2 VDC 




N.C* o- 



4 




Mast 

I 
I 
I 



i 



Mechanical 
- Coupling 



Fi4 



ni 



Figure Z Smple "matiual" controller and display. SI is a center-off toggle. RI and R2 should be equal approximately lOk; R3 and R4 
should be equal, approximately 5t MI shotdd be 0~I mA, up to O'-IO mA. If a less sensitive meter is used, decrease RI-R4. Adjust R2 and R3 
for zero and full scale as RI varies over its range. Duplicate the circuit if a second rotator is used. 



56 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 



motor, the only one which is critical is the 
lead which goes directly to one side of the 40 
VAC transformer. The other two leads are 
completely interchangeable. The critical lead 
is usually marked "3" on the terminal strip 
on the rotator housing. If all else fails, just 
try different combinations until you find the 
right one; the motor will not be damaged by 
brief periods of wrong connections, it just 
won't run. The next part gets a lot more in- 
volved: how to get feedback on antenna po- 
sition, and how to display it in an attractive 
way. 

Analog Position Readout Concepts 

These "analog" schemes involve mechani- 
cally coupling a potentiometer to the mast or 
boom. With the potentiometer turning in syn- 
chronism with the mast (or boom), you can 
use a meter to read voltage (or current) 
through the potentiometer, and calibrate the 
meter in terms of position. We have to find a 
way to accomplish this mechanical coupling. 
One of the problems you will find in the case 
of the azimuth rotator is that ordinary poten- 
tiometer shafts don't turn a fall 360 degrees 
like the mast, so you will have to step the ro- 
tation down with different sized gears or belt 
pulleys, or go to a 10-turn poteniiometer. I 
did find a set of gears which could fit into 
the rotator housing, in place of the cam 
which normally operates the solenoid-control 
switch, I brought the shaft out through a hole 
drilled in the housing and coupled it to a 10- 
turn potentiometer, but finding these parts 
was more pure dumb luck than anything else. 
It is certainly possible to use a rubber drive 
belt (such as can be found in VCR repair 
shops) passing around the mast and over a 
pulley attached to the potentiometer shaft, or 
maybe even a fairiy large **mbber tire'' wheel 
on the potentiometer shaft, mounting it so 
that the *'tire" bears directly on the rotating 
mast, 

A better scheme would be to find a fine- 
toothed gear which is a little larger than the 
mast; take the gear and a short section of 
mast to a machine shop and get them to cut a 
mast-sized hole through the center of the 
gear, and braze the gear onto the masi sec- 
tion. Simply insert the short mast section into 
the rotator, and add more mast sections as 
needed- Then» mount the potentiometer, with 
a matching gear, on the fixed portion of the 
rotator housing so that the gears mesh. Final- 
ly, if you can find one of the rotators which 
allow the mast to pass completely through 
the rotator, you can put a wooden plug into 
the very bottom end of the mast, drill a hole 
slightly less than 1/4" in the center of the 
plug, and force-t1t a shaft into the plug. Then 
you can couple the pot to the shaft (through a 
step-down gear, or use a 10-tum pot). Obvi- 
ously, some mechanical ingenuity is required 
in any of these methods. 

For the elevation rotator, there is a simple 
scheme which works very well. This scheme 
involves attaching a potentiometer to the 
horizontal boom, with the shaft of the pot in 
line with the boom, then hanging a weight on 
the potentiometer shaft. As the boom rotates 




Photo B. The azimuth rotator is mounted be- 
tween the rafters and the ceiling joists. 

up and dow^n, the weight turns the poten- 
tiometer shaft, producing the desired change 
of resistance. Since the elevation will nor- 
mally be a maximum of 90 degrees (i,e., 
from horizontal to straight up), we don't 
even have to worry about exceeding the po- 
tentiometer shaft rotation limits. In my ele- 
vation system, I simply fastened a large cof- 
fee can to the underside of the boom, and 
mounted the potentiometer and weight inside 
the can for protection from weather and wind 
effects. This scheme, while very simple and 
effective* does have one drawback: As the 
bcKim is turning, the weight has a tendency 
to swing slightly, causing the meter needle to 
osciHate as welL 

As shown in Figure 2, each sensor poten- 
tiometer is connected as one arm of a bridge 
circuit, with the 0-1 mA meter as the posi- 
tion indicator. Typical values for the bridge 
components are as listed in the figure, but 
many others will work, and you will proba- 
bly have to do some "trial and error engi- 
neering" anyway to get the meter to deflect 
full scale as the sensor pot moves. Do this on 
the bench, before you mount the pots on the 
rotators! 

Although it is possible to use other de- 
vices including rotary switches, or even to 
electronically count the closures of the 
solenoid control switch, using potentiome- 
ters for position sensors has a real advantage 
if you intend to go ail the way to a computer- 
controlled system: You can read the poten- 
tiometers through **joystick** ports, and use 
software to convert the reading to an antenna 



position. (We will explore the concept in Part 
II of this article.) 

Mechanical Assembly 

Although this article is mostly about con- 
trolling rotators, a few words about rotator 
mounting may be of help when you build 
your system. If you used an azimuth rotator 
which allows the rotating mast to pass com- 
pletely through the rotator housing, you can 
save some strain on the rotator by mounting 
it near the bottom of the mast and placing a 
bearing of some type under the mast bottom. 
In one such installation, 1 poured a small 
block of concrete in the ground, and stuck a 
three-foot section of mast near the center. 
The fixed portion of the rotator mounts on 
that short section. The rotating mast passes 
through the rotator, with the base of the mast 
resting on a ball-bearing mount salvaged 
from a heavy-duty caster assembly with the 
wheel removed. The bearing **bears" most of 
the weight of the mast. The concrete block is 
about a foot away from the wall of the shack; 
just below the eaves of the shack a support 
arm extends from the wall, fitting around the 
rotating mast just tight enough to provide 
suppon without clamping the rotation. 

Another method, which worked very well, 
was to cut a hole in the roof of the shack for 
the mast (and using a rubber vent-pipe boot 
to prevent leaks). The azimuth rotator 
mounts on a vertical board between the 
rafters and the ceiling joists, and the mast 
rests on a bearing on a platform on top of the 
joists. (See Photo B.) The rotating mast pro- 
trudes through the roof only about six feet, 
but absolute height is not that significant 
when the satellites are more than a few de- 
grees above the horizon. In both cases, the 
elevation rotator is mounted on an aluminum 
plate (an old rack panel) mounted to the ver- 
tical mast with U-bolts. Holes are drilled in 
the plate fo accept the bolts on the elevation 
rotator which originally ciamped the rotator 
to a vertical mast. You may be able to make 
out enough details in Photo A to see this 
scheme, as well as the 2 meter yagi and 
70cm helix in my system, and the coffee can 
which holds the elevation potentiometer and 
weight. The two antennas are placed so as to 
balance the weight on the boom, including 
the counterweight protruding from the rear 
of the helix. Close attention to balance will 
go a long way towards preserving the life ex- 
pectancy of the rotators. 

That*s it for Pan I, We have seen how to 
control rotators, how to fix the most common 
problems with non-working rotators, how to 
get rid of the electromechanical control unit, 
and how to get electrical position readouts 
which are much easier to see than the dial on 
the original control unit. Is it worth the trou- 
ble? Maybe not if you only want to have 
manual control of your antenna position, but 
if you want to do computerized control and 
automatic positioning/tracking, the conver- 
sions described above are essential. In Part II 
we will expand the system to one which pro- 
vides both manual and computer control, and 
even allows for the use of a joystick as the 
control device. 



73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1993 57 



p 



llunMrl4onyourFded&ackcard cessibte only to licensed Prams. To 

ilf^yl^ f ff^ vCrlrlv V I CfT9 ^f "eficapsulalion *" This bit of Inter^ 

_ ^ net magic is a little hard to under- 



Jeffrey Sloman N1EW0 
75 HBrTfott Stree! 
Fmnklin IN 4613J 

More Internet Options 

I ttiink columns on Internet con- 
nectivity get more response than 
any other subject. I have had many 
requests for some TCP/IP into — 
these haven't been ignored. I am 
working up to a TCP/IP series, so 
stand by* In the mean time, here's 
some infomfiation for you Iniemet 
junk^es out thefe that 1 ttrink you wiii 
find fascinating. 

What IS ttie Iniemet, Anyway? 

For the uninitiated among you, 
here's the scoop. The Internet — 
note the big "1" — is an enormous 
network of computers of every de- 
scription. These computers are lo- 
cated In educational institutions, 
military instailatians, commerciaJ 
enterprises, even hamshacks. 
These machines — in one way or 
another— are all connected togeth- 
er using TCP/IP (Transport Control 
Protocol/ tntemel Protocol), 

TCP/IP— often just called "IP'— 
was developed by DARPA, a De- 
fense Department wing— to make 
the Internet possiWe. The idea of 
Iha Internet is something similar to 
the fnlerstate system. The federal 
government built the Interstate sys- 
tem citing national security issues. 
How could Washington be e^cpect- 
ed to defend Calitornla without a 
road to gel there? While the need 
tor the Internet was not quite as 
clear-cut. some way was needed 
for the educatlonaL military, and re- 
search organizations who worked 
logether on defense department 
projects to sf^re data. 

Today, the infrastructure of the 
Intefnet is maintained by private, 
regional companies who sell con- 
nections and maintain the compli- 
cated ''routers*' needed to insure 
that your messages gel to their 
destinations. 

How About Ham Radio? 

Hams get involved in at least a 
couple of ways. First, quite possibly 
the most common implementation 
of TCP/IP protocol for the PC was 
written by a ham — Phil Kams — ^and 
bears his call as a name, KA9Q. 
The Intemet uses Ethernet — a net- 
working scheme developed by Xe* 
rox at PARQ (their Palo Alto Re- 
search Center). Ethernet connec- 
tions require special hardware, a 
board called an NIC (Network Inter- 
face Card). Each card has its own 
special "driver' software that under- 
stands its hardware and allows oth- 



er software to communicate 
through it. With KA9Q, these 
drivers are called "Packet Drivers" 
(no direct relationship to packet ra- 
dio) and are available in the public 
domain — making them very popu- 
lar. 

Because these drivers are inter- 
changeable — new hardware, just 
gel a new driver — it is possible to 
create one for use with an amateur 
TNC (Terminal Node Controller) 
njnning in KISS (Keep it Simple, 
Stupid) mode. This means that the 
KA9Q software can be used to run 
TCP/IP protocol over the air using 
neariy any modem TNC, This is the 
heart of TCP/IP amateur operation. 



stand. The basic idea is to wrap a 
TCP/IF frame (data packet) inside 
anotl>er one — encapsulating it. This 
successfully hides the true origin 
and destination of the Iramep and 
makes it possible to control which 
ones will get through to the radios. 
The term "wormhole" was adopted 
for this technique, which is very 
successfully used today. 

Wormholes now connect hams 
in places like Australia. Hawaii. Cal* 
ifomia, Indiana, and even countries 
in Europe. Practicatly speaking, this 
means that I can take a k>ok at a 
BBS in Melbourne, Austmlia, Irom 
my home in southem Indiana, using 
a 5 watt handheld. Fun, fun. funl 

Getting fnvolved 

As I said in the introduction, I 



ififf 



''For the uninitiated among you, 
there's the scoop. The 
Intemet— note the big "I 
is an enormous network of 
computers of every description. 



9f 



Ham stattons mnning TCP/IP offer 
some inl ere sting possibilities. One 
really big one, not lost for a mo- 
ment on the hams involved, is the 
use of the Internet to send data 
anywhere — or nearly anywhere, 

The only problem these hams 
had — other than malfunctioning 
keyboards, brought on by the drool- 
ing anticipation of actually making 
this connection — was to insure that 
FCC regulations were not violated. 
They had to be sure that access to 
radio transmitters located at the 
end of these Intemet links were ac- 



pfan to write a series of columns on 
getting started in TCP/IP. However, 
there are at least a couple of ways 
to get involved with this exciting In* 
temet worid without TCP/IP. 

First, from the radio side. Thanks 
to the growing popularity of IP as a 
way of networking PBBSs (Packet 
Bulletin Boards Systems), the Idea 
of AX < — > IP gateways is catching 
on. With these systems, the packet 
user connects to the PBBS using 
ordinary AX. 25 (packet) protocol, 
and the PBBS provides access to 
the Internet functions through a 



?AB.C,D.E.F.H.MH.lP,J,K,LM.fsi,NRAP.aST.UXW.XZ # h 

H[elp] (<command'nam0>J 

Pescrfptlon 

The help command will display help for a gfver command. The help com* 
mand by itself, displays this particular message. To get help for e specific 
command, enter "help" followed by a space and then the name of the com- 
mand you want described. The following commands have help descriptions 
available lor them: 

area bye connect download escape finger 

help info {heard blT list musers 

nodes operator ports read ser»d telnet 

upk^d vertx3>se xpert whal ZBQ 

Examples 

help anea (displays a description of the "area* command) 
h do wnload(display5 Info about downloading files) 



Figure 1. The help command output for a WG7J system. Note the unusuai com- 
mands iike linger' ar)d lelnet' t/setf for Intemet connections — see the text for 
more," 



menu. This is Jots of fun. 

The WG7J PBBS software 

seems to Ije the most popular, so 
ril discuss it. First of all, the PBBS 
will allow the exchange of packet 
messages just like any PBBS. 
There is a difference in presenta- 
tion, Ihough. With a WG7J system, 
messages are collected into areas, 
and the area command (abbreviat- 
ed V) allows the user to switch 
among them. The areas are based 
on topics, like SALE, BARTER, 
WX, etc. There Is also an area cre- 
ated for each user— any messages 
to you will appear in an area named 
with your call. This is a much more 
convenient system to use than the 
more familiar W0RU type listing. 

Many of the other commands will 
be familiar or seit*explanatory. 1 will 
ignore those and concentrate on 
two Intemet options, "finger" and 
teinef 

Hnger 

The Intemet utility finger is used 
to query a remote system for infor- 
mation. It has two basic purposes 
in the Internet world, one is to get 
information about users and sys- 
tems — the other to get specific text 
files offered by systems for the con* 
ven^ence of users. 

The first use allows a user to de- 
termine if a particular person is a 
user of* or is known by, a machine. 
The syntax is sintple: 

finger N1EWO 
would tell you whatever the system 
you are currently using knows 
about me. 

linger N1EWO#K91U.AMPR. 
ORG 
would tell you what the PBBS run 
by the folks at Indiana University In 
Bloomington knows about me. 

The other use Is also simple. 
What you can do with it depends on 
what the sysop at the system you 
are fingering wants 10 offer. Fof ex- 
ample: 

finger weather ©iugate 
will return the NWS forecast for 
central Indiana. This Is one of the 
ways in which Intemet resources 
are available. 

Telnet 

The telnet utility is very powerful, 
if very simple. Basically, it allows 
you to connect, as a user, to any 
system willing to have you. For ex- 
ample: 

telnet nSin^- a mpr.org 
mi cxmned me lo NSIMO's WG7J 
PBBS in Michigan. When you telnet 
you will generally be logging into a 
UNIX system (or something acting 
like a UNIX system). You will be 
presented with a prompt: 

login: 
Use your callstgn, then when 
prompted for a password, try ''ama- 
teur^ (omit the quotes). There are 
two things to keep in mind. First* 
UNIX logins accept just about every 



SB 73 Amateur Radio Tocfay* August, 1993 



character your keyboard can gener- 
ale as part of th^ user name and 
password, If you mistype, a 
backspace may not clear up the 
problem. The second thing is ttiat 
UNJX is case sensitive — that is» it 
cagm about the shift key. Type the 
1^ and password in alf Fowercase. 
If you do not. the system may not 
tet you fn, or It may decide that you 
want everything in UPPER CASE 
FOR THE REST OF YOUR SES- 
SION. This can be very annoying. 

Other resources available via tel- 
net are various sorts of "servers." 
These machines offer inlormation 
of all sorts which can be very use- 
ful* For example: 

telnet 141^12,196.79 30CW 

wtH connect you to the University o* 
Mkihigan's "Weather Underground." 
This is a weather server that pro- 
vides nearly every text product pro- 
duced by the National Weather 
Service, including forecasts and se- 
vere weather bulletins. This is a 
marvelous resource for you ""Sky 
Warn" participants out there. 

Coming in the Other Way 

1 told you fd have some exciting 
news for Internet junkies! Those of 
you with fandline Internet access 
can get involved from the other di- 
rect ion. \i you have access to Inter* 



net telnet, try: 

telnet K9IU.UCS.lfTOfANA,EDU 

Login with your callsfgn and the 
word "amateur* for a password. 
The ffjBt time you log in, you won1 
be able to do much except leave a 
message to the sysop (s sysop). 
Leave a message requesting ac- 
cess, along with the password that 
you want to use. In a few days, 
you'll have an account — and "ama- 
teur" wilf no longer work as a pass- 
word. Once you have access you 
will be able to telriet onto the ama- 
teur IP network and have lots of 
fun. 

There ^ a lot more to the Inter- 
ne! and ham radio than what you 
have read here. I hope you choose 
to explore it. Keep your eye on this 
column for more information. 

A Request of Sysops 

If you are a sysop of an AX < — > 
IP gateway, J would love to hear 
from you so I can let people know 
that you exist. Send mail to: 

jsloman@bix.com 
with your PBBS info, including your 
frequency and Intended coverage 
area. 

73deNtEWO. 



The ears 

have it! 



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CIRCLE B2 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



w w The R8 is like a breath of fiiesh air^ witli its 

ground-up engineeitng and up-to^ate digital 

control from the froiA panel 1 am veiy pleased 

to see a quality HF receiver of American 

manufacture that should successfully 

compete on the worid maritet ^ % 

Bill Oarke 
73 Amaietir Radio Today 



When we inlroduced the American-made R8 Worldband 
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from very welWraveled ears. 

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In touch with the world. 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

73 Amateur Radio Today •fKuq\x^\,'\22^ 59 



Rtty loop 



Number 15 on your Feedback card 



March Leavey, M.D., WA3AJR 
6 Jenny Lane 
Battimore MD 21208 

Every once in awhile, I am remind- 
ed that the name of this column is 
"flTTY Loop," and that, to many of 
you, putting such a loop together re- 
inains a mystery. To that end, I am In- 
cluding, this month, the circuit shown 
In Figure i. 

OEdies but Goodies 

Submitlfid by Bob Hoehrig K9EUK 
af Batavia^ Illinots, is an answer for the 
ham who is looking for an efficient way 
to put an older teleprinter on-line. Bob 
writes that the first section of this cir- 
cuit (shown in Figure 1) "is a selector 
magnet driver circuit that I have used 
for many years on my Model 28 equip- 
ment running on 60 mA."* The 120 
VDC can be obtained from a line isola- 
tion transformer ancf the appropriate 
diodes and electrolytic capacitors, or 
else use a pair of back-to-bacK fila- 
ment transformers. 

'The reason for using around 120 
volts is simply that the selector mag- 
nets work better. Granted that you can 
get 60 mA from 24 volts or so . . . with 
the higher voltage you will have a 
greater range on the printer's range 
finder, Using 120 votts and the 2i< re- 
sistor also provides a simpler means 



of obtaining a constant current supply. 

"lV!y driver circuit accepts low vo it- 
age input (such as an RS-232 source). 
The marking state does not have to be 
a negative voltage, but can just go to 
zero volts. The transistors are wired 
as a SchmJt! trigger to sqirara up the 
waveform. Q2 must be a high voltage 
transistor such as an MJE-340 or 
ECG*1S7. R4/C4 limit the spike when 
the switching transistor turns off. 

"The second section is the circuit 
which connects to the keyboard or TD 
contacts. It is also powered from the 
120 voit supply. The output Es 10 volts 
during spacing. 

''Many people don't realize that 
there are two different kinds of selec- 
tor magnets used in the Model 14 and 
Model 15 (and Model 19) equipment. 
The 'pulling' assembly uses round- 
shaped magnets and the 'holding' type 



t 



120 VAC 



; 




t 



120 VAC 



; 



Ffgare 2: Line isoiBtion with back-to-back transformers. 



assembly uses smaller diameter but 
slightly longer magnets. These have a 
square-shaped pole piece as opposed 
to a round cne. The pulling type mag- 
nets are always wired in series and 
are always to be used at 60 mA- The 
holding types are wired in parallel for 
60 mA and series for 20 mA circuits. It 
is always a good idea to use these at 
60 mA. Seme of the holding type se- 
lector assembles have a toggle switch 
near the magnets to switch between 
the 20 mA and 60 mA configuration. 

There were some military versions 
of the Model 15 that had some real 
high resistance magnets. These were 
intended to be wired directly into the 
plate circuit of the l^eyer stage of 



the lube type terminal units. Normal 
selector magnet resistance is around 
60 ohms each, if I remember cor- 
rectly." 

Hot Stuff 

Lef s deal with this in a little more 
detail, Bob, as 1 believe that there are 
quite a few who remain mystified by 
the inner wort^ings of a teleprinter. To 
begin with, Figure 2 deals with that 
^line isolation" question. You see, if 
you have noticed, we are dealing with 
a 120 volt loop supply. But if you tiave 
the bright idea to Just rectify the line 
voltage, DONT! Since one side of the 
power line Js "hot," and one side 
"ground, "* you would stand a 50:50 



[ 




115 VAC 



L 





H 



2.5 K 

IS W 




20^ F 
300 VDC 




150 VDC 
^ 60 mA 



Figure 3: Baste RTTY Loop supply circuit. 



R1 



Q2 
MJE340 




R5 

y\AA/V 

22K 2W 



Printer p AAAA ^ 




Keyboard 
Sig, Outo^ 



Fig- 2 




_Lc; 

R9 n~-i 

IK I 



Keyboard 



1/2 W 



Figure 1: Sefector Magnet Driver Circuit 



60 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 



chance of rendering the chassis oi 
your teJeprinter hot, creating a poten- 
tially lethal situation. 

A line isolation transformer simply 
isolates you from that situation, with- 
out changing the voltaga Connecting 
the secondaries of two filament trans- 
formers to each other, as shown in 
Figure 2, accomplishes just that goal, 
at minimal cost. 

As for the loop supply itself, it can 
be as simple or complex as you would 
like itn Figure 3 fs my favorite basic 
supply. Just a transformer, a diode, 
and a capacitor are all you need to get 
basic direct current. The current limit- 
ing resistor Is needed because of the 
low resistance of the selector mag- 
nets. In the typical Model 15 teleprint- 
er, there are two selector magnets, 
each with a resistance of 105 ohms. 
Accessible on temninals 45 and 46 on 
the side of the machine, they may be 
connected fn either series or parallel 
A series circuit, with a total resistance 
of 210 ohms, is designed for operation 
at 20 mA, and a paraJlel circuit, with a 
combined resistance of about 52 
ohms (according to Bob's memory), is 
for the more common 60 mA loop. 
Now, If the loop supply delivers 150 
volts, and the resistance of the mag- 
nets is about 52 ohms, the resultant 
current would bs (remember Ohm's 
law?) 150/52, about 3 amps! "Burn 
out those magnets real quick, don't 
'cha think?" Therefore^ a series resis- 
tor is included to limit the current to 



the proper 60 mA current. Normally, 
thfs Is about 2000 to 2500 ohms. It Is 
important to make this a high powered 
resistor, though, as, for example, with 
our 150 volts at 60 mA, the wattage 
will be 150 X 0.06, about 9 watts. 

So there you have it, a simple driv- 
er for older machines to let you run a 
teleprinter off a low level signal. Hope 
this is useful to you, and I Eook forward 
to receiving other thoughts on this ev- 
er-changing subject. 

Collect the Whole Set! 

Speaking of changing, the latest 
disk of software is filling up, with more 
RTTY goodies. Any of the four of the 
collection can be yours. Just send ei- 
ther a 5.25" or 3.5" disk, $2 per disk to 
be filled, and a note telling me which 
collection you want, along with a self- 
addressed, stamped disk mailer, and 
I'll get it back to you right away. Col- 
lections #1, #2, and #4 are 
RTPif /packet programs; collection #3 
Is a bunch of archiving and viewing 
utilities. Just send me a self-ad- 
dressed stamped envelope if you want 
a list of what's in each archive cotlec* 
tioni if you want to peek first. 

I look forward to more mail and 
comments this month. The summer is 
here and we can all feel energetic. 
Drop me a note at the above address, 
or Email via CompuServe (ppn 
75036,2501), Delphi (username Mar- 
CWA3AJR) or America Online [screen 
name IVIarcWA3AJR). 



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73 Amateur Radio focfay* August, 1993 61 



Homing in 



Mumber 16 on your Feedback card 



Joe Moeif RE. K0OV 
RO- Box 2508 
Fufierton CA 92633 



For T-Hunters Only . , . Not! 

As you leaf through ham maga- 
zines, you won1 find ads for tots of 
products designed specifically for 
transmitter hunters. Nevertheless, 
radio direction finding (RDF) enthu- 
siasts can find many items that are 
useful on ^'foxhunts" or "T-hunts'** as 
RDF contests are called. 

Often, the sellers of these prod- 
ucts don't mention their foxhunting 
applications, I suspect that's be- 
cause they are unaware of them! 
ThEs month, we will look at three of- 
ferings that are aimed at the main- 
stream han> radio market, but are of 
special interest to T-hunters, 

World s Lightest Yagi? 

Hiking and emergency prepared- 
ness, as well as RDF, were on the 
minds of Mike Walker KA0VFF and 
Al Lowe N0IMW when they devel- 
oped the Arrow Antenna (Photo A). 
This 4-element 2 meter yagi is 
rugged, yet very lightweight. It can 
be assembled and disassembled 
quickly, Elements fit into the alu- 
minum boom or the supplied PVC 
pipe carrier for storage and trans- 
port, 

T-hunters quickly recognized this 
beam's suitability for mobile RDR 
They have been talking it up since 
construction plans were published 
in the April 1 992 issue of 73 Ama- 
teur Radio Today. For example. I 
recently communicated with hams 
in tVlontreal and Memphis who use 
arrow designs on their local hunts. 
Many RDFers have duplicated the 



Radio Direction Finding 



antenna from the maga^ne article, 
while others have purchased theirs 
ready-made from the Arrow Anten- 
na company, 

KA0VFF has stepped aside, 
leaving N0IMW as the sole propri- 
etor of Arrow Antenna. Al and his 
family are churning out yagis and 
doing a brisk business at hamfests 
and via mail order. "I've been selling 
a lot of them to hams on the front 
range here in Colorado,'* he says. 
"Search and rescue is using them, 
and so are some balloon trackers." 

Al and Mike cleverly picked 
lightweight aluminum arrow shafts 
for their beam elements. At about 1- 
1/4 pounds, the Arrow Antenna is 
much easier to turn at low vehicle 
speeds than my PVC-pipe stiff-wire 
T-hunt quad. I was surprised when I 
compared Arrow shafts to the usual 
hollow aluminum antenna tubing. 
/^ Arrow element of the same out- 
side diameter and length weighs 
only half as much as a tubing ele- 
ment! 

Masts and associated hardware 
are not supplied by Arrow Antenna. 
Al says a metal mast does not im- 
pair the beam pattern, but I used 
thick-walled PVC pipe for my mo- 
bile tests. I mounted a U-bolt per- 
manently to the mast and drilled 
two pairs of holes in the boom at 
the center of gravity. This allowed 
me to change the yagi quickly be- 
tween horizontal and vertical polar- 
ization without affecting my mast 
pointer alignment. Some T-hunters 
have designed 90-degree hinges 
for instant polarization change. 

In my RDF tests, the Arrow An- 
tenna had slightly higher gain than 
my regular 4-element quad. Its 



front-to-side and front-to-back pat- 
tem was excellent. Good 8WR was 
obtainable across the entire 2 meter 
band. 

For close-in hunting on foot, Al 
suggests reconfiguring the antenna 
by removing the front director and 
swapping positions of the other di- 
rector and reflector on the boom. 
This gives you a 3*element beam 
with a 15-inch mast handle in the 
rear for easy carrying. 

Despite its light weight, this yagi 
withstands the rigors of mobile fox- 
hunting well Parts and workman- 
ship of N01IV1W's antennas are 
guaranteed for one year. Al says, 
"In my T-hunting experience with 
tree limbs and street signs, the only 
damage has been to bend the 8-32 
studs that attach the elements. 
These can be easily straightened or 
replaced to fmjsh the hunt." Re- 
placement threaded rod is readily 
available around the country. 

RF by the Numbers 

A field strength meter (FSM) is a 
simple untuned receiver that visual- 
ly indicates the relative strength of 
the surrounding RF field. Hams 
most frequently use FSMs to com- 
pare the gain and directivity of an- 
tennas, and to tune/adjust antenna 
matching networks. 

T-hunters use FSMs for close-in 
RDF when the fox's signal oveq^ow- 
ers sensitive portable receivers 
such as handie-talkies and scan- 
ners. Probing on foot with a FSM is 
called "sniffing." 

Inexpensive unamplified FSMs 
require 50,000 microvolts or more 
of RF input for usable indications, 
making them unsuitable for sniffing 
except when the transmitter is inch- 
es away. Amplified sniffers have 
more sensitivity, but some have lim- 
ited meter range or touchy zeroing 
adjustments. 

LC. Engineering has just intro- 
duced a DC-to-microwave FSM with 



digital readout. The N.C* in the 
company name isn't short for "inte- 
grated circuits." It stands for Ismael 
Charnabroda KD6TU, the compa- 
ny's owner. Ismael, a former 
aerospace engineer turned en- 
trepreneur, is enthusiastic about his 
product 

The Digi-Field {Ptioto B) is a 
mgged plastic box 4-3/8" x 3-1/4" x 
1-3/4'^ with an SO-239 antenna con- 
nector on top. An 18-1/4" telescop- 
ing whip antenna is also supplied. 

The 1/2" high 3-1/2 digit liquid 
crystal display is ideal for antenna 
pattem checks. Set the unit on a 
fence or ladder several wave- 
lengths away from the transmitting 
antenna under test and watch the 
readings on this FSM with binocu- 
lars as you tune and tweak the an- 
tenna or transmitter. 

Battery life won't be a problem 
with the Digi-Field. It draws only 2 
milfiamperes, so its 9V alkaline bat- 
tery will last hundreds of tiours. An 
indicator tells you when the battery 
drops to 8V, but in my tests the ac- 
curacy was not affected until the 
voltage got down to below 4V. 

With only one control (the on-off 
switch), operation of the Oigi-Field 
is straightforward. KD6TU doesn't 
provide a detailed instruction manu- 
al, but he offers technical assis- 
tance by phone to buyers. 

The original Digi- Field ("A" mod* 
el) and its telescoping antenna will 
detect a 1-watt 2 meter handheld 
with "duckie" antenna at 65 feet. 
Overrange occurs at about two feet 
from the HT. The new "B" model is 
more sensitive, overrangfng at 25 
feet. 

Because the Digi-Field has an 
unshielded case, body capacitance 
affects readings. To avoid this, 
mount the unit to your sniffing an- 
tenna mast instead of holding It in 
your hands. Avoid touching the 
coax connector when sniffing, as 
the reading will be affected. 




Photo A. The Arrow 2 Meter Yagi Mod&t 144-4 has a suggested rataif price of $89.00 and is available from Arrow Anterjna, 1461 Peacocfi Pi., Loveland CO 80537; (303) 
$63-5485^ The iatest modei features caps on ehment ends for safety, instead of the sharp points shown here, 

62 73 Amateur Radio Today • August. 1 993 



No sensitivity centres^ is provided. 
You can shorten the antenna or add 
eictemal attenuation to reduce the 
meter reading. However, the Dlgi- 
R eld's internal wiring can pick up 
RF, so close-up measurements of 
poweilul Ts may not t)e possible, 
even with the whip antenna col* 
lapsed or feniovecl. With the anten- 
na disconnecled. the t watt rig 
overranged the B model at 6 inch- 
es. 

Digi*Field responds lo RF from 
low frequencies well into the mi- 
crowave spectrum. Full sensitivity is 
available to 1000 MHz, and re- 
duced sensitivity continues to 12 
GHz. While this is generally useful, 
it means that strong ambient RF 
fiefds can mask the signal you're 
looking ioL You don't have to be at 






i 






'^"^hUtA 




Photo S. The DighField Modet A and 
B field Strength Meters have 3 sug- 
gested retaii price of $1f9S5 and are 
avaiiabte from tC Engineering, 16350 
Ventura Bfvd , Smte i25, Enctno CA 
91436:(818} 345-1692 (Tech. Info.}. 
(800} 343-535B (Orders). 



a communications site to have htgh 
RF fields. When J held the B moctel 
over my head in the center of a 
large subuitan park in Fulierton, 
Calrfomia. the indication went to 
half scale, even though I was 
blocks away from the neaiest trans- 
mitting antenna. 

The (fetector output Jack on ttie 
side of the Digi-RekJ can be hooked 
to an audio amplifier and speaker or 
phones to give you an idea of what 
is being received. Only amplitude 
modulation can t>e detected in this 
way; you cannot copy FM signals. 
The jack will not <ime an earphone 
directly and the wiring to your am- 
pfifief can cause additionai unwant- 
ed signal pickup. 

As with all FSMs, Digi-Field mea- 
surements are relative, not abso- 
lute. The digital readings are not in 
dBm, milliwatts, microvolts, or any 
other units. KD6TU will provide typi- 
cal power-versus-readout graphs 
on request. You can perfomi your 
own crude calibrations wfth a labo- 
ratory signal generator, but your in- 
dications will vary with frequency, 
temperaturet and source impe* 
dance. For foxhunt sniffing, afl we 
care about is relative strength, so 
this is of liltie concern. 

Ulliputlan ID-er 

Engineers at Communications 
Specialists weren't thinking of the 
RDF market when they designed 
the ID-e, a miniature CW identifier. 
But Mike Wolfe NgCHQ, who pur- 
chased one of the first units, was 
quECk to see its T-hunt possibilities. 
He wrote to me on CompuServe 
that an ID-8 is the brains of a fox 
transmitter he built to put on hunts 
for the North Shore Radio Club in 
Highland Park, Illinois. 

The ID-8 is a tiny circuit board (1- 
7/8" X 1-1/8") with a surface -mount- 
ed 6805 microprocessor, EEPROM, 
and voltage regulator. Hook it to a 
transmitter ar>d it wilt generate CW 
identification at programmed inter- 
vals, either by keying the carrfer or 
by providing a keyed sine wave 
lone to ins modulator. 




Photo C The iD-8 fdentifter board and keypad has a suggestBd retail price of 
$89.35 and is avaifahle from Communications Speciaiists, inc., 426 Taft Ave., Or- 
ange CA 92665: (800) $54-0547; (714) 998-3Q2t. 



The ID-8 can send up to eight 
separate CW messages. The eight 
messages can be piayed succes- 
sively to form one long message of 
up to 216 characters. I^essages are 
entered with a supplied 12-button 
keypad (Pt>oto C), which ts plugged 
into the ID-fi. With this keypad, yoii 
also instruct the IDer how fast to 
send the CW {1 to 99 WPM) and 
how often lo send the message 
(continuously, by external com- 
mand, or spaced up to the 10- 
minute FCC limit). 

There are several other pro- 
grammable parameters including 
tone frequency and dead-carrier de- 
lay time before the message. When 
programming is completed, param- 
eter and message data is stored in 
the EEPROM. You can then remove 
the keypad until you need to 
Change callsign or timing for anoth- 
er hunt. 

The lD-8 needs only 6 mil- 
liamperes from a 6 to 20 volt DC 
source. A 9V transistor radio battery 
Witt power It for days. Comm-Spec 
says it's immune to thermal varia- 
tions and RF fields. The operating 
temperature range is -30 to +65 de* 
grees Celsius. 

N9CHO was quite pleased with 
the iD-8 as a fox oont nailer. Though 



it lacks the distinctive tone patterns 
of the foxboxes discussed previous- 
ly in this column^ it was just right for 
his club's on-foot beginners hunts, 
"What 1 like atrout the unit is that I 
can program the ID and timing in 
the field," he wrote, *Nonnally I use 
25% duty cyde. 15 seconds on, 45 
secor>ds off. 1 program in the ID and 
then adjust ttie code speed so that 
it lasts for 15 seconds including a 
short delay on keyup. I then set tfie 
off lime. 

"Once it is programmed," he 
adds, "I connect a 3-conductor ca- 
ble to the transmitting KT I turn on 
the unit and it runs by itself. The 
unifs timer appears to be very sta- 
ble. During the hunts in which we 
have used jt I have not noticed any 
drifting in the timing circuit. It really 
works beautifully, and does not 
need any shielding " 

From my standpoint, the main 
appeal of the ID-8 is its size. An 
IDer and keyer this small seems 
perfect to go with the subminiature 
VHF transmitter described in the 
May 1993 "Homing In." KB6TTS 
and I are designing an FM modu- 
lator and interface to connect 
these two beards. With luck, we will 
have tested circuits for you n ext 
month. 




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anCLE 231 ON REAOEfl SEHVICE CARD 



73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 63 



Number 17 on your Feedback card 



H H MumoeT I i on your reeui 

Hams ythh class 



Carole Perry WB2MSP 

Met^ia Mentors, fnc. 

P.O. Box 131646 

Staten island NY 10313-0006 

Dayton '93 Youth Forum 

It's always an atisplcious occasion 
when grown-ups get together to honor 
the achievements ot children. Certain- 
ly, the young adults who showcased 
their achievements at the '93 Dayton 
Hamvention Youth Forum deserved 
the spotlight. It was an honor to mod- 
erate a torum with such talented chil- 
dren from across the country. 

Our first speaker was Rusty Smith 
KD4GLC, Who IS 17 years ofd and is 
an Assistant Section Manager in Ken- 
tucky for the ARRL His main respon- 
sibility is to recruit young people into 
ham radio. Rusty is interested in DX- 
Ing and contesting. He to id us that his 
goal was to lead the stale of Kentucky 
In the Novice Roundup using CW only 
He succeeded, and said that this 
event was the most fun he has had so 
far as a ham radio operator. 

Barry Kennedy i^J2PNG fs 16 years 
eid and comes from New Hampshire, 
where he attends the Dublin School. 
Barry is active in recruiting young peo- 
ple and has done some teaching at 
Crotched Mountain School This is a 
rehabilitation facility that has had 
some extraordinary results with their 
young people through the use of ama- 
teur radio classes, 

I would never run a youth forum 
without at least one member of the 
distaff side. Shauna Richards N7NGT 
Is a bright, pretty 1 7-year-old young la- 
dy from Rock Springs. Wyoming, 
Shauna was the first teenage girl in 
Wyoming to earn a ham license. That 
was on S/8/8S, In 1990 she earned 1st 
and 3rd place at the district and state 
science fairs as a freshman in the se- 
nior engineering division. Her winning 
science project was on five modified 2 
meter antennas that would function 
welt even if trapped under a collapsed 
double-decker highway, such as the 



one which fell in the 1939 San Fran- 
cisco earthquake. Then, in 1991, she 
received the Hiram Percy Maxum 
Memorial Award. 

Matthew d'Atesslo KC6VIM is 15 
years old and lives in San Anselmo, 
California. He captivated the audience 
with his eloquence and confident man- 
ner in front of such a large group. Matt 
spoke about how much he enjoys CW, 
He also enjoys working 2 meter FM 
with his hand-held radio. Matt says, 
'There is nothing like working the 
world on a few dots and dashes on a 
cold winter night. I have talked with 
hams in 60 countries using these 
"crazy beeps." Matthew got a terrific 
reaction from the young people in the 
audience. 

Eric Pemnut KB0KQF is a 12'year' 
old from Boulder, Colorado- I first 
heard about Eric from Rip and Ellle 
Van Winkle, who run license classes 
in Boulder. The Boulder Amateur Ra- 
dio Club sponsors "BARC Jr." for 
young people. Eric is vice president of 
tfiat club. He also handles net control 
for the junior hams' net on a local 2 
meter repeater. Eric successfully 
wrote a grant appllcalion for his school 
to buy ham radio equipment. The 
young man regularly operates bicycle 
mobile and has constructed an in no* 
vative J -pole antenna for his bike. He 
brought the antenna to the youth fo- 
rum to show everyone, along with a 
display of photos of the BARC Jr. club 
members, 

Mike Placco KB8LCC is a 16-year- 
old from Mi [ford, Michigan. Mike was a 
shortwave listener first before he be- 
came a ham. He has held the position 
of secretary of the Milford Amateur 
Radio Club, Mike enjoys HR CW, and 
pontesting. He enjoys helping his 
teacher with the radio club at the local 
high school, I was pleased to learn 
that many of these young amateurs 
contribute to recruiting and helping 
programs too. 

Ten-year-old Luke Ward K04IQ is 
from Alexandria, Virginia. The audl- 




Photo A. When these threw vlsft a hamfest, it looks more ll{<e a round-up at the OK 
Cormif Pictured are Cody KB5WYJ, Casey K85UE. and dad Marty Haley AB5GU 
at the Dayton Youth Forum. 



ence members were visibly excited 
when they learned that Luke has 
earned his Advanced license. In fact, 
Luke holds Novice classes for third 
graders. He gave a "professionar pre- 
sentation with the overhead projector, 
showing graphs that gave statistics 
about children of hams becoming li- 
censed. He helped found the Spring- 
fiefd Estates Elementary School Ama- 
teur Radio Cfub which has as one of 
Its purposes: To provide a vehicle 
whereby parents, students, and teach- 
ers can share common interests and 
work toward common goals. 

Casey Haley KB5UE and his broth- 
er Cody KB5WYJ are 8 and 10 years 
old respectively (see photo). Casey 
has a General license and Cody a 
Tech Plus. These two youngsters from 
Houston, Texas captivated the audi- 



ence with their ability to communicate 
what they love about amateur radio. 
They tMth were introduced to the hob- 
by by their Dad, Marty AB5GU, and 
Mom, Wende KBSTNU. The boys en- 
joy packet and CW, I've invited the 
Haleys to join me in June at the Texas 
HamCom in Ariington* 

It's always a personal pleasure for 
me to work with youngsters from all 
across the country at various youth fo- 
rums. This time, I was especially hon- 
ored to meet and help feature such 
talented and eloquent young adults. I 
invite everyone to attend the youth fo- 
rum in Texas. Come and see the best 
that our hobby has to offer. Come and 
see the future of amateur radio! By the 
way, Yaesu has donated a 2 meter HT 
to be given to a very lucky youngster 
at the forum. See you there! 



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CIRCLE 293 01^ READER SERVICE CARD 



64 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 




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73 Amateur Radio Todays August, 1993 65 



Qrp 



Number Id on your Feedback card 



Mrah3efBfyc& WB8VGE 
2225 Mayftower NW 
MBSSflfon, OH 44646 

Fixing an Argonaut 509 
(Continued) 

Now that Tve mad# a complete foof 
of myself with the Argonauti it's time to 
get down and get serious! Ifs also time 
to break out the test gear and the sol- 
dering iron, afong with the manual. 

Since we have verified that the Arg- 
onaut is producing 2 waits RF output, 
the next step is to be sure the transmit- 
ter Is producing power on all bands. A 
quick check with the wattmeter proved 
ail bands were producing RR Since the 
probEem had to be in the metering cir- 
cuit that's where I started to look. 

The Metering Circuit 

The metering circuit is contained on 
one PC board mounted to a switch 
shaft. You must remove the PA module 
to get to ttie SWR board. This board is 
not removable by unplugging it from a 
socket. There are many wires coming 
out of the board, and each is soldered 
in place. There is enough slack in the 
wires to allow the board to be moved 



Low Power Operation 



from Its cubbyhole out into the q^en. To 
do this, remove the two nuts from the 
switch shaft hoiding the board to the 
switch. Be careful — they are very small 
and are easy to drop inside the radio. 

After you have the two nuts re- 
moved, notice there are several wash- 
ers and spacers on the studs. Carefully 
remove these and lay them aside, Now^ 
puil the PC board back out from the 
shaft. After the PC board has cleared 
the shaft, you can pull it up siightly. If 
you can't move the board, don't pull ft 
or force 11 to move. Doing so wiii break 
off a wire. 

Since there is no indication of for- 
ward RF, then the most likely suspect 
would be a diode in the RF pickup sen- 
sor In fact, the diode must be the one 
used to read forward power. The 
schematic shows this to be diode D1 . 
It's a 1N32A type germanium diode. 

Not being one to check diodes, I 
Simply replaced it with a new diode. 
Don't use a 1N914 silicon diode! You'll 
not get the desired results if you do. 
You must use a germanium diode. If 
you can't find a 1N32A, then try a 
1N60. Radio Shack sells a pack of 
1 N32A diodes for about two bucks. 



After the new diode had been in- 
stalied, I installed the PC board back 
inside the rig. You simply reverse the 
removal procedure. When tightening up 
the nuts on the switch shafts don't gel 
too carried away or you'll end up strip- 
ping out the threads and then you'll be 
in reaE deep dung! Finger-tighten them 
and then give them one full turn more. 

Power up. and with the output of the 
rig into a dummy load, hit the tune posi- 
tion. Whoa! Works just iike downtown! 
After all that messing around, to find 
out the probtem was just a 10-cent 
diode takes it toil on the oid self-confi- 
dence. Oh, well: One down and one 
(dead Argonaut) to go. 

Arrother Argonaut Bites the Dust 

This Argonaut is mine. I cooked it 
trying to find out what was wrong with 
the first one. Now, since I know the 
tn^uble was only a diode, what did I do 
to cook the other one? It's apparent the 
boards must be working correctly^ but 
then again, look what happened the 
last time I assumed! 

Since my Argonaut won't go into 
transmit, the likely spot to look for trou- 
ble would be the control board. The 
control board tells the other circuit 
board what to do and when to do it 

The control board is mounted on the 
top half of the Argonaut and almost di- 
rectly over the meter and drive controls. 
It's a plug -in board with several trim- 
mers mounted on it. 



Since the control board does al! the 
T/R switching, voltage checks on the 
^T^ and "R" lines revealed that the "T* 
line was not going to +12 volts when 
the Argonaut was keyed. It then be- 
came a simple matter to foilow the volt- 
ages as the key line was ciosed. After a 
few minutes of looking and checking, it 
becanr>e obvious the MPSU01 did not 
turn on and off as it shouid. Looking 
closer at the board and the transistor. It 
became quite clear why — the center 
lead of the transistor had broken off 
right at the component's base. You had 
to hold the board just right to see the 
broken lead on the transistor's body. It 
must have broken off whHe swapping 
control boards from one rig to the other. 

Now, you can't just go down to the 
local Radio Shack store and get one of 
these critters, so a call to Ten-Tec pro- 
vided me with the replacement part. In 
a few days they came in and within a 
matter of minutes the Argonaut came 
back to iife. 

Touch That Diall 

If you have to order parts from Ten- 
Tec, always include a dial o^rd kit. You 
can always use it yourself or give it to 
someone else who can use one. 
They're not too hard to install, but it 
does require a compiete strip-down of 
the Argonaut. If you t>ave to remove the 
end panels you may as well replace the 
dial cord while you're at it. 

To get rrwre life out of the dial cord 




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66 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 




when you're not using the rig, rnove the 
pointer all the way down to the low end 
of the dial. This removes nearty all the 
tension from the elastic cord, extendirig 
fIs lite. As you move the pointer closer 
to Itie meler, you increase the puil on 
the elastic, thus weakening it. After 
awhile, when you move the pointer 
down lo the bw end of the t>and. the 
pointer wfll sag cfown into th€ window. 
At tfvjs point yow'll have to nestrrng the 
dtal with new elastic cord, 

if you made it to Dayton this year 



Photo A: Th& Tbh-Tbc Argonaut 509. 

and dkj not get sick from the rain and 
cold weather, you probably were feeling 
wetl enough to pick up a used Arg- 
onaut If you did, and you're Still hopliig 
that someday the other guy wilf send 
you the manual you're in luck. You can 
get a complete manual for just about all 
the Ten-Tec rigs by cailing their service 
department. You'll get a photocopy of 
the manual for about S20. Expensive, 
yes. tHJt really worth the money when 
the Argonaut goes down. 



A Sneak Preview 

Day Ion also provided a showcase 
for Ten-Tec to show oft their new 
"Seoul" Iranscelver. I'll have a full re- 
view in a conf>ing "QRP" column, but 
here are some of tl% highlights of the 
ScouL 

It's bom as a monoband rig. Ybu can 
chartge barnls by swapping out a front 
panel plug- in module. The Scout will 
cover all the ham barxte. including the 
WARC bands. Each band module costs 
$25. You get the band of your choice 



with the punchase of the rig. The band" 
modules are about as bng as a pack of 
cigarettes and about hall as wide. The 
Scout will operate CW using the fa- 
mous Ten-Tec QSK system, and of 
course it will cover SSB. too. Power 
output is 50 watts. Input power is rated 
at too watts, A QRP version of the 
Scout will be available down the road. 
The price will t>e about S60 less than 
the QRO version. You can turn down 
the power of the QRO version by ad- 
justing the ALC control. Of course, the 
efficiency goes in the dumper, but you'll 
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50 watt version if you so desire. Current 
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9 amps. This current requirement can 
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QRM fighting controls include the 
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10 combat rmpulse'type noise. There ts 
a built-in keyer included, too. A nice- 
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73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 67 



Atv 



Number 19 on your Feedback card 



mt Brown WBBELK 
c/o 73 Magazine 
70 Route 202 Nofth 
Petefborough NH 03458 

The W9TC Crossband ATV 
Repeater 

IVe been asked many limes about 
the pitfalls and obstacles that nead to 
be surmounted In order to successfully 
buifd an ATV repeater. This month l"d 
like to offer you the srory of how merri' 
bers of the Fort Wayne Radio Club 
solved both the tech n tea I and politioa! 
problems involved in m stalling a very 
effective AT\/ repeater, as described by 
Jim Pliett K90MA. The following is his 
account- 

FindlngaSlte 

I (K90MA) am an active ATVer with 
a few years experience operating sim- 
plex. I became intrigued with the idea of 
building an atv repeater in the Fort 
Wayne area after seeing the Indianapo- 
lis ATV repeater in operation while at- 
tending meetings of the Indiana UHF 
club. 

One day, while driving to work, I $aw 
an empty tower at the Indiana/Purdue 
campus ard wondered if there was any 
possibility of installing our ATV anten- 
nas on it. It was located right in the mid- 
dle of the Fort Wayrre amateur radio 
community and was nearly 170 feet tall. 

Now, how does one deal with th© 
politics of a state-funded community 
college to obtain permission for a re- 
peater site? Lucky for us^ one of our 
club members worked at the college 




Photo B. Two Afford siot antennas (one 
for 439:25 and one for B1Q.25 MHz) 
are stacked on top of eac^ other and 
Side-mounted on ttie tower. Birds just 
fove it! (Photo by Jim Pliett K90MA), 

68 73 Amateur Radio Today August 



Ham Television 

and helped us gain a favorable position 
with the college board. Meanwhile, we 
set out writing letters to the National 
Weather Service and the Director of 
Emergency Preparedness describing 
how an ATV repeater could aid the 
community in the event of a disaster or 
emergency. We obtained letters of sup- 
port from these organizations and pre- 
sented them to the college board. After 
a few months of anxious waiting we not 
only obtained permission to use the 
tower but they provided us with an 
equipment room to boot! 

We presented the idea of the ATV 
repeater to the members of the Fort 
Wayne Radio Club. We weren't sure we 
could sell the concept to a club that al- 
ready supported two VHP repeaters 
and one UHF repeater, as well as spon- 
soring a large FieJd Day effort. Howev- 
er, since the club was recently solvent 
thanks to their last two successful ham- 
fests (and probably thanks also to a few 
members who just wanted to end the 
meeting), the motion to fund the project 
was passed. Our first ATV repeater was 
getting closer to a reality! 

Building the Repeater 

Fortunately for us, Bruce WB8UGV 
had moved to the area from Dayton, 
Ohio, Bruce had a lot of experience 
with ATV repeater design since he built 
most of the original Dayton ATV re- 
peater. We formed the repeater techni- 
cal committee and started Kicking 
around ideas. We have plenty of UHF 
voice repeaters in the area and a num- 
ber of accomplished EME operators 
(K9KFR and AF9Y). Keeping in mind 
that we were the ''new kids on the 
block** {along with Bruce *s blood-cur- 
dling tales of in-i3and repeater problems 
on 440 IVlHz)^ we decided to go cross- 
band with a 439.25 MHz input (lower 
vestigial sideband). 

Now, did we want to go with an out- 
put on 1.2 GHz or 900 MHz? The 1.2 
GHz band always seemed to be a good 
band, equipment was available, and the 
band was not threatened with extinc- 
tion. However, could enough interest be 
generated to inspire lots of hams to go 
out and buy downconverters for that 
frequency to watch ATV? Probably not 
too many. A few visits to the local K- 
Mart and Wal-Mart stores provided us 
with an economical solution. The Gemi- 
ni "Rabbit" wireless video system oper- 
ated on the 900 MHz band and was 
available for under 350 (some stores 
sell just the receiver for substantially 
less). Not only do you get a high quality 
downconverter, but a transmitter is in- 
cluded as well. With the wide availabili- 
ty of these inexpensive units we decid- 
ed to go with a repeater output on 
910,25 MHz [Ed. Note: Next month's 
cofuma will describe how to instatl ex- 
terna ! antenna connectors on these 
units and twea({ them up for best re- 
sults} 

1993 




Photo A. iiia WQTEAi V id^iitiiBi was on dispiayat the Summit City fiamfest Just 
t^efore final InstBltation. (Photo by Jim Pliett K90MA, The photographer can be 
seen on the TV monitor^) 



The Antenna System 

Although vertical antennas are easy 
to obtain or build, we opted for horizon- 
tal polarization on both bands for added 
isolation from all of the nearby UHF re- 
peaters that use vertical po3ari2at(on 
and the services in the 9G0 MHz band 
that are also vertical 

Adolph WA9WTJ was given the task 
of designing and building a pair of hori- 
zontal omni-directional antennas (one 
for each band). Adolph decided to go 
with an Alford slot design, which al- 
lowed the antennas to sit on top of 
each other. Two- and four-inch diameter 
thin- wall tubing was obtained from local 
manufacturing companies and we 
found some scrap aluminum stock for 
the support collars. The radomes were 
built out of drainage pipe we bought at 
a farm store. To maintain the necessary 
accuracy for the slots, we had to hire a 
machinist. Since we had pretty much 
blown the budget by now, one of our 
members volunteered to machine the 
aluminum support collars. 

Repeater Assembly and Installation 

All of the hardware was tested and 
Installed in the equipment rack. After 
some final tweaking and two revisions 
Of the repeater controller's software, we 
were finally up and njnnfng with a work- 
ing repeater (at least on the testbench). 
See Figure 1 for a block diagram of the 
final configuration of the W9TE ATV re- 



peater. The 5-10 watt driver amplifier 
was built by Bob Johnson K9KFR. Al- 
though Bob used discrete components 
in th3S design, he recommends an easi- 
er approach using a new 10 watt linear 
brick amplifier that is now available from 
Down East Miaowave. Box 2310, RR1, 
Troy UE 04987; TeL: (207) 946-3741 
(ask for the Hitachi PFOOtI module). 

The too watt amplifier is a Varian 
Eimac CV2eiO, These amplifiers are 
somewhat rare, but they turn up occa- 
sionally at hamfests or In surplus 
stores. 

Success 

At last the big day an-fved. The club 
had amassed a 500-foot roll of 7/8-1 nch 
hardline for the installation. It was 
amusing to watch us try to wrestle with 
this giant coll of coax as we unrolled it 
and snaked it up two floors to the tower 
base. School regulations required us to 
dig into the club treasury to pay for a 
bonded tower climber, however. The 
antenna and coax was installed without 
a hitch. We opted to side-mount the an- 
tenna just below the top of the tower, 
hoping to be a lesser lightning attractor, 
A few days later we carried the repeater 
rack up three flights of stairs, hooked 
up the coax and tired up the trans mttter. 
We were rewarded with a perfect 1:1 
SWR {another perfect antenna design 
by WA9WTJ). Bruce WB8UGV headed 
home and sent the first picture through 



Ihe repeater. After overcoming a slight 
interference problem, we were fully op- 
erational! 

After seven monlhs of operation, we 
have experienced very few problems 
and have tieen off the air for only one 
day when an HV diode shorted out. 
ATV actfvtty has been picking up In the 
fegiof}, with daily contacts tjeing made 
through the repeater, During a band 
opening on May 9th. th€ repeater re- 
cejvied a P4 picture from Arxjy WSAHY 
in Wiriiamston, Michigan (150 miles 
away). That same night Jim W8AC and 
others in the Cleveland, Ohio, area 
worked through the repeater and saw 
the 910.25 MHz output at a distance of 
nearly 200 Jniies. 

If you*re in the area and would like to 
look for the repeater, you pan bring up 
the video ID for one minute on 910,25 
MHz by hitting a '88 touch -tone com- 
mand on 144,34 MHz. Hitting "Z? will 
hold open the repeater for continuous 
repeat mode (Iftlle or no input Signal for 
weak signal reception) for one mfnute. 

To recap, the repeater input is 
439,25 MHz and the output is 910.25 
MHz, Audk) from the input vk^eo signal 
and anything received on 144.34 MHz 
wffi mbc together into the repeater out- 
put atxik) subcarrJer. 

Next month we'll take a kx>k at rrKxfi- 
lying the Gemini Rabbit for use on 
ATV in the 900 MHz harxl. Thanks to 
Jim Ffiett K90MA for the above infor- 
mation. 






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73 Amateur Racfio Today • August, 1 993 69 



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San Diego Microwave Gfioup 
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Solid-state Surplus AmpllTmr^ 

This month 1 would like lo cover 
some little gems that have recently 
started to appear on the surplus nnar- 
kets — miniature RF amplifiers. These 
itsed to fall into the general category of 
"UNOBTANIUM/ Reguiaf readers 
know that unobtanlum is usuaify rele- 
gated Id the pages of defense industry 
microwave journals and very tough to 
find in surplus. However, these minia- 
ture RF amps are suddenly beginning 
\o show up In surplus lots more and 
more often. 

Perhaps tf>e mos! outstanding fea- 
ture of tt>ese iinio amps is their price 
tag — enough to make any accountartt 
QXigh. But that does not detract from 
their beauty because they exhibit greal 
gain and very low noise figures. They 
are especially attractive if they are 
found in the surplus markets and have 
frequer>cy ranges that cover our ama- 
teur microwave t>ands. One drawttack 
lo note: These amplitiers are most of< 
ten hermetically sealed, making modifi- 
cations virtually impossible. 

) have purchased quite a few of 
these amplifiers so I thought \ would 
share some of the information that I 
have gained from the experience. 
When shopping for these devices you 
should keep in mind the old adage: "All 
tfiat glitters is not gold." Take it from 
me, they are not all created equal. By 
that I mean some make very good 
doorstops. If you have a blown one, 
you can machine the top cover off to 
reveal a very Interesting design struc- 
ture (Photo A), Many of these have in- 
termeciiate stages that still function but 
have no output due to a fried Input or 
output stage. Some draw no current at 
alj. So I must advise that you make a 
careful evaiuation o( unknown ampli- 
fiers. 

For many of us, the^ amplifiers are 
real strange as far as their construction 
goes. They are assembled by micro* 
scope, using micro positioners. Never 
does even a sinali soldering iron touch 
their circuits^ihe amps are just too 
small. The circuitry is usually attached 
by miniature gaiC wire and weided by 



mrcropoEltioners. Take a look at Photo 
A. This as a picture of two annplifiers I 
purchased at local swap meets. For 
display purposes t have piaced one de- 
IWive amplilief, with its cover removed 
by a milling machine, on top of a good 
amplifier for comparison. 

The amplifier that funclioris provides 
gain from 10.4 GHz to 18 GHz accord- 
ing to the manufacturer's label. But I 
tested it on my workbench and oti- 
served gain from 6 GHz to over 20 
GHz With nolioff whk^h was not too Crtti- 
cal at those t>and edges The remark- 
able thing about this amplifier is that 
tfie overall gain is 30 d8. Its maximum 
output power is also +30 dBm, with 
drive power of zero dBnrv That means 
a standard signal generator can drive 
this amplifer to full output of +30 dBm 
or t watt power output. Still, IJils unit is 
so small it can fit in a flip-top cigarette 
box. They re quite miniature for the 
power and gain punch they pack. 
Please note tt^at an external heat sink 
is required to operate these Ifttie amps. 

J_ook at Photo A again. Upon close 
inspection, what appears to be large 
blocks centered about the direct line 
t»etween the SMA coaxial connectors 
IS aduaily very complex circuitry. Each 
small block is actually a complete 
push-pull transistor chip substrate cir- 
cuit mounted in the space of a pencil 
eraser cross-section, way less than a 
quarter of an inch in area. A jeweler's 
toop or magnifyir^g glass is needed to 
see this circuitry. You really have to 
see one in person to appreciate It. 
Then you can understand why they 
need a microscope to put these togeth- 
er* 

The Repair Job Learning Curve 

One example of a repair job that 
proved interesting was on the minl< 
amp shown in Photo A.^ whicft I 
opened up after it drew no DC current. 
Upon Investigation with a magnifying 
loop eyepiece I found a DC input lead 
broken. Attempts to re-attach it with a 
soldering iron were met with failure. 
Every time I tried to solder the gold 
wire it melted, I tried to re-connect it to 
the bypass capacitor that served as the 
connection post for the main DC pow- 
er, t used a single strar^d of AC zip 
cofd to terminate on the chip capacitor- 
It measured only 0.15* square t>ut was 




Photo A. Two 10.6 to 18 GHi amplifters. The unit on the top was cut open to sh€>w 
the assembly technique. 



still very lang© by compartson. My at- 
tempt to re-connect Ihe gold wire 
failed, and trying to solder it wfth a 5 
watt iron (my smallest) to the top Of the 
Chip cap was futile. What finally did 
work {for a while} was using two com- 
mon sewing needles like ct>opsticks. I 
was successful in winding the gold wire 
around one single strand of zip cord. 

After all this experimentation, the 
amp that was totally dead is now draw* 
ing current but still has an output stage 
failure. By checking with a probe and 
driving the input of the amp I was able 
to see gain Increase by moving the 
probe from the input stage to succes- 
sive stages. Now, this Is an extreme 
case, but consider the learning experi- 
ence. It proved to be a vaiuable lesson 
of how not to make a silk purse out of a 
sow's ear. Ail kidding aside, it was a 
valuable lesson and the information 
gained on how it was constructed 
alone was worth the trouble. Systems 
like these and how their various com- 
ponents work togetner are often valu- 
able tools for discovery. 

Let's look at another example. This 
one is also a tiny amp which uses SMA 
connectors and fully hermetic hous- 
ings. The second amplifier is also 
made by CIT. ii has a date code of 
66087. I'm not sure what il all means 
but it seems safe to assume the "ST 
reters to the year it was made. While 
testing this amp, I found that with -10 
dBm input power driving the amp I got 
+27 dBm output. That's a 1/2 watt of 
output power. I checked out the fre- 
quency range, tt was from 4 to 8 



GHz— exactly as written on me label. 
Thts amp rolfed off fast at its band 
edges. 

Increasing the drfve untif output 
compression started and then just 
backlrtg off a tad produced an output of 
1 watt at '1 dB drive. Higher drive lev- 
els took the amplilier into compressiOTi 
and produced no more output. DC 
power requirements were +15 volts at 
1 .3 amps. Ttie amplifier ts ttnear and 
capable of SSB, FM or even video If 
you want. What you put in is what you 
get out. You see a true reproduction 
wifti gain, just like a linear should give 
you. 

What does something like this cost? 
Well, without the quantity price breaks, 
simiEar amplifiers sell for around 
$1,800. So, if you can't find one in sur- 
plus, they are available from the manu- 
facturer. All you have to do is use 
some plastic credit and order one. I 
personally prefer to shop the surplus 
markets and wait for new toys to arrive. 
I paid $20 for the privilege to play with 
tills one, without guarantees. 

Tlie packaging styles that I have 
just described are not the only ones to 
watch for, but they are an indicator of 
what may be inside. Take Photo 6, for 
Instance. It's an amplifier from Dexcel 
which was made to cove*" to 10 GHz. 
I had no idea what this amp would ac* 
tually do, but ifs still a good example of 
what to kxjk for. (it cost me $10 at a 
swap meet but came wthout a guaran* 
tee.) The fifst things to identify are the 
two SMA coaxiaf connectors, the single 
power connection, and the giourn! ter- 





Mt 



11 



ii4 :>L?T 




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Photo &. Sample of a Dexcsf 10 GHz amplifier. 
70 73 Amateur Badto Today* August, 1 993 




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Sell your product in 73 Amateur Radio Today 
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73 Amateur Radio Tcxiay * August, 1993 71 




Photo D. These smpiiflers were purchased at a swap meet. Sometimes you can find treasure this way, but not always^ 



minal. You have to figure these SMAs 
are costly connectors and for a manu- 
facturer lo use them indicates they ex- 
pect high performance tn the mi- 
crowave range because they would not 
waste the money on low frequency 
stuff. More importantly ^ we know this is 
not a filter or some other "passive de- 
vice'' because they provide DC power 
feed through capacitors, one of which 
is marked "+15," My rational Is: If it's 
not too expensive, give it a shot. 

One thing to watch out for when 
evaluating surplus components is look- 
alike solid-state switching relays. They 
have severaf SMA connectors and 
multlpfe power pins. Don't confuse 
these with amplifiers! (fs easy to make 



this mistake because many are not 
clearly labeled. For example^ a solid- 
state switch (SPDT) would have three 
SMA connectors, one or two ground 
posts, and two DC power pins. (One 
power pin is requtred for each direction 
you bias the diode switch. One is posi- 
tive and the other is negative or 
ground. This is to allow the common 
continuity to the diode that is' normally 
positively biased on with a few nnA of 
current,) But let's get back to RF amps. 
There is some risk in buying sur- 
plus^ of course. You have to have faith 
that the seiier Isn't testing them all and 
just selling those in better need of an 
autopsy. In this case, with the two SMA 
connectors, DC power connectors, and 



moderate price, I bought it. To test It I 
put it in my drill press bench vise, 
which serves as a heat sink, and ap- 
plied +1 5 volts of power. It drew 1 amp 
of current. Drivmg with my sweep oscil- 
lator I was able to get just about 1/2 
watt output with a few mW drive (-1-3 
6Bm), It was alive! 

This amplifier was similar in many 
respects to the ones I mentioned 
earlier, except for size. This one was 
quite a bit larger, roughfy r x r x B\ 
The point J want to make again Is 
what to look for. The SMA connectors 
and power pins are the minimum re* 
quirements. Then you are on your own 
to evaluate what other information may 
or may not be marked on the prospeo- 



tive module you happen to be apprals- 

In the case of this device, t figured 
out the power connector and found that 
when I applied DC power 11 drew about 
1 amp. I then slowly increased the fre- 
quency on my sweep oscillator, keep- 
ing the drive level to -10 dB during ini- 
tial testing. 1 found the output centered 
around the 8 to 11 GHz range. The 
amplifier had 22 dB gain with output 
power of about 1/2 watt throughout that 
frequency range. 

Another unit that I picked up from 
surplus is the CIT power amp shown in 
Photo C, In this case, the label tells 
most of the story. With some units you 
just have to appiy power and signal^ 
but be aware that not all units will test 
the same. You just have to take the 
plunge and hope you didn't pay too 
much for these units. If the seller Is 
asking for big bucks, inquire atMut the 
guarantee. If the dealer is reputable, 
you will be given a guarantee, or at 
least be allowed to test it before buy- 
ing. 

Testing before purchasing is a good 
option. It assures the purchaser that 
the unit operates, ar\d also provides a 
good cover of protection for the seller. 
If a shop test is used the seHer knows 
what is there and can prove it. With ail 
surplus material, however, the guaran- 
tee Is pretty much over at the end of 
the driveway. The seller is protected 
from someone abusing the unit or oth- 
erwise destroying it with reverse volt- 
age in testing or some other unfore- 



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72 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1 993 



seen event. This seems to be a rea- 
sonable policy ff the parties to this 
transaction are not located too far from 
each other. 

Lets go back lo the amp in Photo C^ 
In this case the amp had all parame- 
ters posted on the unit for frequency 
and polarity of DC power, but gave no 
clue of output power or gain. On the 
testbench I found that with -16 dB drive 
(input power) I could obtain 1/2 watt at 
the output. By raising the drive to near 
D dBm I obtained 4-30 cfBm or 1 watt of 
output power before gain compress ton 
started. That's the maximum that the 
amp can tolerate, as it will give no fur- 
ther increase in output. This amp is 
liny — I placed a quarter next to it for 
size comparison. The unit measures 3- 
VZ' X 2" X 3/4". 

Power dissipated is 18 watts, so an 
effective heat sink must be used to 
keep the amplifier cool, if it is not used 
you will destroy the unit in short order. 
The preferred method is mounting it on 
a block of aluminum with heat sink 
grease. Note that in Photo C there are 
six mounting holes for attachment to a 
heat sink* 

Photo D shows several amplifiers I 
purchased at a swap meet. The long- 
looking devices on the bottom left and 
bottom right are excellent doorstops. 
They were high gafn 5 to 8 GHz units 
made by Raytheon for military applica- 
tion, but they showed very low gain 
and absorbed large amounts of power 
from the power supply (16 watts DC), I 
did not follow my general rule and got 



bitten on this one. I will have to have 
peanut butter sandwiches for a week 
or so to fuily recover from this experi- 
ence. 

The other amplifiers in Photo D in- 
clude a MIC amp (top left) for DC to 
500 MHz, a 70 MHz IF amplifier with 
35 dB gain {center top), and a home- 
brew 2 GHz ampiifier of stripjine con- 
struction. The bottom center unit is a 
2.3 GHz amp. with 30 dB of gain, by 
Amplicia. The point in showing these Is 
lo f>igh light some of the various styles 
of amplifiers in use today. I wish you 
good luck locating some for yourself. 
Keep your eyes open at swap meets 
and other events. I have one friend 
who goes to swap meets with his wife 
and they snatch up everything they can 
find that selis for a buck or two that is 
small and has two SMA connectors 
and a power pin. True, he has an im- 
pressive coil action of door stops. But 
so far they have only spent $10 on 
Junk, and about $30 or so on real fine 
units. 

Of course^ the market is not limited 
to just amplifiers iike the&e — they may 
be the exception. Other types are 
available; you just have to keep your 
eyes open. 1 have been able to pick up 
amps that work in the range of 30 MHz 
to severai GHz. They are all usabfe — I 
use the low frequency amps for IF 
work and the higher frequency amps 
for RF work. If you are as lucky as I 
have been you wiji soon have more 
amplifiers than you can use. Your 
worst problem will be trying to store all 



this stuff: That's why i stress small on 
my list of requirements. 

I violated this rule at the tast swap 
meet when I found a unit that weighed 
over six pounds, heat sink included. It 
had a BNG and an N connector with 
power pins. The price was rjghl, so I 
picked it up. It was covered with grimy 
dirt from the blower attached and lots 
of use. The label on top of the unit was 
obliterated and defied identification. 
The object on the heat sink was only 6" 
square and 1-1/2" high— very small for 
the heat sink it was attached to. I re- 
moved the basic unit from the heat sink 
and removed the 35 4/40 screws hold- 
ing the lop cover down. What I saw up- 
on lifting the cover defied reason: It 
was a very complex microwave trans- 
mitter complete with osciiiator 

After intense investigation 1 deter- 
mined that this unit was a video trans- 
mitter converting video lo RF directly. 
Internally it had two dip lexers for two 
channels of audio to ride along with the 
video. Since it was about eight years 
old SI used transistor frequency multipli- 
cation to about 1 .7 GHz. where it fed a 
duai'Clnannel, highiDOwer varactor mul- 
tiplier. The interesting part of this story 
fs that when I applied 24 voits DC pow- 
er, it drew 4 amps and put out +43 
dBm at 4.9 GHz into a dummy load. 
Power of +43 dBm is 20 watts of pow- 
er! Looks iike the unit is good from 4 to 
5 GHz so plans are in the making to 
see if it can be adjusted to the 5760 
ham band as a video transmitter. What 
else can you say but, "WHAT A GOLD 



MINEf It doesn't happen ali the time, 
but sometimes It does happen. Now if I 
can only figure out the lottery numbers 
. . . just dreaming. 

Mailbox 

Jack N700, of Serria Vista, Ari- 
zona, wants to use 10 GHz full-dupiex 
on a data link for experimentation. He 
has several intruder units manufac- 
tured by Raycom to test. His transmit 
units run on 78 volts DC. Can these 
units be modified? Well, Jack, it 
sounds iike you have an impatt diode 
oscilfalor, indicated by the 78 volts. 
That's what these diodes take for oper- 
ation, 75 to 100 voEts DC. Each diode 
has a specific critical voUage to set os- 
cillation current — limited lo a particular 
mA value tor that diode. 

Some units have to be adjusted 
lower in frequency by metallic screws 
penetrating further into the cavity. I 
have seen some Impatt sources that 
require dielectric tuning screws which 
have to be inserted into the cavity to do 
the same thing. In that case we used a 
Nylon 10/32 screw to do the required 
tuning. A lillle experimentation is need- 
ed to solve your particular unit's fre- 
quency adjustment. I just have not 
^en these Raycom units. 

Wefi, that's it tor this month. Next 
month I pfan to get into another type of 
ampiifier, the Log Amp. As always I will 
be gfad to answer any questions relat- 
ing to this or other aspects of VHF-to- 
microwave operation. Please send an 
SASE for a prompt response. 




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73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 73 



Ask kaboom 



Number 21 on your FdOdbo ch card 



Mictrael J. Geier KB 1 UM 
c/o 73 Magazine 
70 Route 202 North 
Peterborough NH 03458 

The End of Oscilloscopes 

For the past couple of months, 
we've been examining the nrtty-gntty 
of using that wofKirous window rnto 
the wacky world of electrons, the os- 
pUoscope. Lefs finish it yp. 

Just a Short Delay 

OK I youVe got your waveform 
frozen on the screen. Great! You're 
all ready to go. Hmmm, the part you 
want to see is awfully small and 
squashed. Wouldn't it be nice if you 
oould stretch rl all out? Well sure, 
you can speed up the sweep, but tt's 
kind of annoying to have to switch it 
back to where you were after you're 
done. For quick time base increas* 
es, most scopes have a lime base 
magnification" button. This mulliplJes 
the speed of the lime base by 10 (or 
sometimes tjy 5, depending on the 
scope) and lets you return to your 
onginal setting just by pressing the 
button again- 

Uh oh, watt a minute, now the 
part you want to see Js off the right 
side of the screen, lost in space 
somewhere. How do you get it 
back? Slow the sweep back down* 
But now everything's so scrunched 
together that all the detail is lost 
again; it's just a tiny blur and you're 
right back where you started. It 
would seem like there's no way out 
of this dilemma, but there is. it's 
caJled delayed sweep. 

What you really need here is to 
trigger on your selected trigger point 
but not start sweeping until later on 
in the waveform, right? Delayed 
sweep iels you do that. First, you set 
up your waveform so that what you 
want to see is on the screen, but 
loo smalL That way, you know you 
have a stable trigger point. Then, 
you use ih^e delayed sweep oonirds, 
which are just Hke the main time 
base conlrols. to start the sweep 
taier in the sigr^l. The effect is like 
looking through a magnifying glass, 
As you turn Ihe sweep delay control, 
the signal zooms past as if you had 
a really long screen. Any lime you 
work on a signal whose period 
of repetition is very long compared 
to the high frequency components 
(again, a TV signal is a great ex* 
ample}* delayed sweep is an ab- 
solute necessity. TTiere are lots of 
low-cost scopes !hat don't include 
this handy feature, but I strongly 
recommend you get a scope that 
has it. even H you donl see a need 



The Tech Answer Man 

for It now. You will, I promise. 

Cursors 

Some newer scopes provide on- 
screen cursors which iel you select 
various points in your waveform for 
measurenront. You can, for instarice. 
easily measure the time between 
any two points or setect a point and 
read its voltage. Usually, the result is 
drawn numerically right on the 
screen. Although these cursors don't 
give you anything you can't get your* 
self with a little more work in inters 
preting tfie screen, they speed 
things up and take some of the bur- 
den off of you. They're nice but 
unessential. And they usually add a 
few hundred doitais to the pnce of a 
new scope. 

Memories > . . 

Light the corners of my work- 
bench. Well, not my workbench, but 
some people's, especially if they 
have a fair amount of money, fm re- 
ferring to digital storage, which, for 
some applications, provides the utti- 
mate \n oscilloscope utility. 

Digital storage scopes have been 
around for many years, but they still 
are too expensive for most of us. 
I've never seen one at a hamfesl, ei- 
ther. {Bui I keep looking!) Digital 
scopes work in the same way as any 
other digital recording devices, They 
use an anaiog-to-digital (A/D) con- 
verter to digitize the incoming signaL 
Then they store the bits in memory. 
After thatf the information is read out 
and displayed as a trace on the 
screen. Why bother? The beauty of 
the system is that you can do things 
to those bits while they are in memo- 
ry. You can measure the values they 
represent, perform mathematical op- 
erations on them to remove noise, or 
do just about anything you can 
imagine. A\sq. you can keep those 
bits as long as you like and even 
store them on a disk wtthout any sig- 
nal degradation. And» your ioput sig* 
nal can be a one-shot event and you 
can stiil see it long after it's gone! 
Sounds like electron Utopia, huh? 
Well, not quite . . . 

A Mess By Any Other Mame 

In order to accurately represent a 
signal in digital form, you have to 
sample it at a rate that is at least 
twice as fast as the fastest compo* 
nent of the signal itself. This basic 
tenet of sampling theory, called the 
Nyquist Rule, is Ihe reason why 
compact discs sample at 44,1 kHz 
(because the highest audio frequen- 
cy of interest is 20 kHz). It is also the 
reason why digital sampling devices 



always have low-pass filters at their 
inputs to reject any incoming signal 
components which are faster than 
halt the speed of their A/D convert- 
ers. It's absolutely necessary to do 
that tjecause, if any of the unwanted 
signal frequencies get through, they 
will cause incorrect A/D conversion 
and result in an odd form of signal 
distortion known as "aiiasingr Alias- 
ing is the electronic equivalent of the 
Strobe effect. YouVe seen that any 
time you've watched TV or a movie 
and seen car or wagon wheels ap- 
pear to go backwards. The wheels 
were going much faster than the 
frame rale of the sampling device 
(TV Of movie camera), so portk>ns of 
their rotations were missed between 
frames. The fesutt is that the wlTeels" 
positions were depicted at various 
points along their paths, implying a 
speed or direction of rotation which 
never really occurred. That's alias- 
ing, and il can make an electronic 
sigrial appear totally different than it 
really was, 

Equivalent Is Not Eqtial 

On a digital scope, the limiting 
factor in the instrument's ability to 
'grab' fast signals is the speed of its 
A/D oonveiier Just a few years ago. 
an A/D converter which could digi- 
tize mega hertz -rate signals was pro- 
hibitively expensive. We're talking 
hundreds of dollars here, jusl for the 
converter So, in order to make com- 
mercially viable digital scopes, de- 
signers turned to a compromise 
method cahed "equivalent-time sam- 
pling." In this technique, the convert- 
er Is made to sample a small piece 
of the signal which has been frozen 
in a preceding circuit called a "sam* 
pie and hold." Each time the signal 
repeats, the converter samples the 
next small chunk, building up a digi- 
tal representation of the total signal 
over many periods- This method of 
using a sluggish converter to digitize 
a fast signal does work, but it has a 
big disadvantage: The signal must 
repeat, and be exactly the same, 
over a fairly long period of time or 
the resulting digitai representation 
will be wrong. So. equivalent -time 
sampling works fine for simple 
things like sine waves, but il is use- 
less for complex wavelonms which 
change a lot, like TV signals or digi- 
tal pulse trains. Still, it is handy. 

These days, 20 MHz converters 
are fairty cheap, and even faster 
ones are coming down in price all 
the time. So. a tme-sampfed 10 MHz 
scope is not prohibitive, and that 
same scope can offer equivalent- 
time sampling to perhaps 50 MHz or 
nnonS- 

Because of the aliasing Issue, 
digital scopes take more under- 
standing to use than do analog 
units. The only way to tie sure you*m 
really seeing the truth is to have 



74 73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1 993 



some idea of what stiouid be there 
in the first placel 

Some scopes offer both digital 
and analog modes in the same box. 
They ain't cheap, but they offer the 
best of both worlds. Ah, iM only 
oould afford one . , , 

The Futum 

Considering the proliferation of 
pocket LCD TV sets, you might won- 
der why you can't buy a pocket LCD 
oscilloscope. Well, you can! That is* 
if you have some serious bucks. IVe 
seen ads from two companies mak* 
jng them. One sells for about 
$1,100. and the other, with more 
speed and features, goes for about 
$2,000, As E.T. said, •Ouch.' 1 
strongly suspect that, if more people 
Knew how to use scopes, the market 
would drive the price down and we*d 
see $100 basic LCD scopes at Ra- 
dk} Shack, just as once^xotic digital 
multimeters can now be had for as 
little as $25. 1 know Td be first in line 
to get one. 

Also, there have been several 
•Computer scope" products which ah 
low you to use your personal com- 
puter as a scope. These boxes con- 
tain the A/D and other required hard' 
ware and present digitized infonna* 
tjon to your computer, where appli- 
cation software lets you manipulate 
and display it. It's a great idea^ 
About six years ago I had a comput- 
er scope made by Heath* It worked 
great but I strongly drsliked using it, 
primarily because it used a serial in- 
terface at 9600 baud^ resulting in 
slow, snapshot-like traces on the 
screen. Also, it had a slow A/D and 
reEied heavily on equivalent-time 
sampling. A good, fast, converter 
and a parallel or SCSI Interface 
would have made all the difference. 
Still, it was a useful^ if frustrating, 
box. 

Well, I think we've covered just 
about every knob and button on an 
oscilloscope. I hope I've enticed you 
to think about getting a scope, or to 
pull that dusty one out of the closet 
and fire It up. Now, let's look at a few 
letters: 

Dear Kaboom, 

My KDK FM-2033 transmits but 
does not receive. After awhile it 
comes back to life and works fine. I 
checked for t^ad solder joints, but no 
luck, 1 don't have the manual, and 
KDK is no longer in the US. How 
can I fix this thing? 

Signed. 
At A Loss 

[>earAt, 

I'll bet if you measured the fre- 
quency of the rjg's transmissions 
when it is not working, you'd find 
they were nowhere near where they 
should tje! My bel is that your PLL is 
way out of lock and, for some rea- 



son, the rig's out-of-lock detedor Is not catching 
[t. it could be as simple as an adjustment, but I 
can't suggest anything because I, too* have no 
access to a manual for that rig, I strongly recom- 
mend that you put a notice out on packet and try 
to get a manual. Good luck — 1 hope you find one. 

Dear Kaboom, 

About five years ago 1 bought a Moliceil 
rechargeable-titbium battery pack for my ICOM 
handheld, i still have it and it still works greall I 
once left it for six months and it retained about 85 
percent of its charge. It seems to have no memo- 
ry problem and is tfou tile-free; it's much better 
than NiCds. I'd like to buy another one but the 
supplier seems to have disappeared. What hap- 
pened to ttiis excellent product? 

Signed, 
Urtrequite^i Love 

Dear Umequlted, 

I remember the Wollcell, In fact, somewhere I 
still have a key chain the company gave me at a 
product demonstration. Yes. they were great bat- 
teries. Unfortunately, they were quite a bit more 
expensive than NiCds. I (*on1 know if that's the 
reason they didnl catch on^ amJ I doni know if 
MolEceli IS still in business or not. I do know that 
Sony has a rechargeable- lithium battery on its lal* 
est high-end mini camcorder, so the technology is 
not dead. )f any of you oifl there know the status 
of Moliceli or thetf wonderful batteries, please let 
me know and I'll pass it along here tn the column. 

Until next time. 73 de KB1UM. 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 75 



Number 22 an your Feedback card 



^^p ^^ Nu m bef Z2 on your Feea m i 

73 INTERNATIONAL 



Amis Johnsort NIBAC 
43 Oid HomesteBd Hwy, 
W, SwanzBy NH 0343t 

Notes from FN42 

Hey, guess what! Someone has 
been reading my co/i/mn and told me 
the other day that he was taking my 
advice to get invofved with helping 
others in ham radio. But, this guy has 
been very activeiy involved already, 
Gary KD1JR got Involved from the 
very beginning of his amateur careen 
^M^llch hasn't t^een very long. He pro- 
gressec/ through to Extra within a year 
and has been goiryg hard ever since. 
And, nol too long ago, he decided to 
get invotved m the MARS program to 
be able to provide phone-patch ser- 
vice to many of our service people. 
Thanks, Gary, anrf keep up the good 
work! There's lots more news this 
months so let^s get to III 73 — Amie, 
NIBAC. 

Roundup 

Braztl This is a little bi! late, but 
The Antenna-Etecfronica Popular 
magazine sponsored the World Wide 
Soulh America CW Contest^ 
WWSA/1993 June 12-13. 1993. Send 
your logs (witti SAE/iRC for rssutts) by 
Jyly 31 to WWSA CkJDlesI Commiltee, 
fO Box 282, 20001 -&70 Rio de 



Janeiro, RJ* BraziL JYm WWSA CW 
Contest was created In 1962 and 
takes place every year on ttw second 
complete weekend of June. The 
WWSA is supervtsed by the weH- 
l<nown CW Groups Ptca-Pau Cartoca 
(PPC) and Morse Cluba Gaucho 
(MCG). 

Republic of Korea Letter from 
Charlie R Hopkins HL9FY: Hello to 
alll t am stationed at Osan Air Base 
with the United States Air Force. We 
have 3 very acUve amateur mdio club, 
ttie Amefican Amateur Radio Club ot 
Korea. We have members wtx> attend 
our meetings from all over the Korean 
peninsula. I am the treasurer of tNs 
organkalion and ttve volunteer exam- 
iner coordinator liaison for the ARRL 
testing group. I have been in Korea 
this time since December 1987 and 
am currently serving on my seventh 
lour. I got my original amateur radio li- 
cense in May 1 963 and came to Korea 
In August 1983. Shortly after my ar- 
rival ^ I requested a HL9 caltsign. Prior 
to my departure from the U,S.A. in 
1987, I wrote to the office responsible 
for issuing licenses to U.S.A. person- 
nel In Korea and was fortunate 
enough to get my old callsign back, 
HL9FY, I wish to infomi you tf^t some 
people coming to Korea can get an 
amateur radio license. There are 




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some requirements to be met. Before 
a person is eligible to get a HL9 cafl- 
sign, they must be covered under the 
Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) 
between the governments of the Unit- 
ed States and the Republic of Korea . 
If they meet this criteria and have a 
valid US. callsign, they can apply tor 
an opera tor's permit and get a station 
authorization. 

Operating in Korea is a Irttle differ- 
ent from operating in the U.S. Tliere 
are no portable or mobile operalioris 
pennitted lor HL9 licensees. There are 
no (repeat, no) CB operations alknwed 



in Korea for foreigners, Fur&iermore, 
the installation of radio equipment 
(amateur or CB) in a privately^wned 
or government vehk;le is pf<^ibited. 

The frequency allocations are dif- 
ferent on some bands. Power is limit- 
ed to 500 watts for the Extra, Ad* 
vanced, and General Glasses; 100 
watts for the Technician Classi and 50 
watts for the Novice Class. Just alx>ut 
all modes of operation are permitted: 
SSB. CW. RTTY, packet. SSTV, FM, 

and beacons, just !o name a few. You 
must also maintain a log of contacts. A 
license, orx^ tssued. is valid until the 




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76 73 Amateur Radio Today » August. T993 



person^s DEROS (date of estimated 
return from overseas) is reached, the 
Individuars statewide license expires, 
or the person leaves the country on a 
permanent change of station <PCS). tf 
a person reaches his DEROS date but 
is extended, he or she must renew the 
license before the expiration date. The 
license date Is not automatically ex- 
tended with the service commitment 
extension. Any person coming to Ko- 
rea who is covered by the SOFA 
agreement and would like more infor- 
mation on amateur radio operation 
may contact either myself or Mr An- 
drew Lamb at the following addresses 
and phone numbers: SMSgt Charlie 
R, HopKins, PSC #3, Box 5314, APO 
AP 96266-5314, 011-82-333-661-4750 
(23002-07002), 315-784^750 (DSN). 
011-82-333-661-4620 (24 hour FAX), 
315-784-4620 (DSN FAX) or Mr. An- 
drew F. Lamb, ACofS J6, ATTN: 
EAIM-0-OMT APO AP 96205-0010, 
01 1 -82-2^79 1 5-4 1 60 (5300Z-0700Z) , 
315-725-4160 (DSN), 011-82-2-7913- 
3052 (24 hour FAX), 315-725-3052 

(DSN FAX). Mr, Lamb or I can ansv^er 
anyone's question (s) concerning get- 
ting a license in Korea. Please feet 
free to call or write if you need infor- 
mation. The phone numbers are listed 
as they would be dialed from a com- 
merojal phone, unless Indicated as 
DSN. If you write, please note that an 
APO address is just like a stateside 
address and does not require Interna- 
tional postage. Usually a three-to-four- 
page letter w[|| oniy require one £9- 



cent postage stamp. 

On a final note, a person may not 
apply for a HL9 callsign until they are 
physically in the country. So, if you are 
coming to Korea, pack up your rig and 
plan on getting on the atr when you 
get here. A license can be processed 
in as little as 15-20 minutes^ {Wouldn't 
that bG nice here in the U.S., rather 
than 6-3 weeks or more? — Arnie} 
Andy and I are looking forward to 
hearing from the future HL9s and wel- 
come you to "Korea: Land of the 
Morning Calm." 73 from Charlie 
HL9FY, AARCK Treasurer, AARCK 
ARRL VE Liaison. 

Russia Letter from Andrei Truba- 
ctiov UASPtP, organizer of YOP: The 
Young Operators International Radio 
Club (YOP). The YOP is an interna- 
tional organization ot young peopte, 
intended to promote friendship and a 
better understanding of one another 
by sharing ideas about radio and other 
hobbies through radio communication 
and a newsletter. 

The idea of organizing the club 
came to me after about five years of 
activity on the ham bands. While trying 
to Improve my English by talking with 
other operators, I found that about 
95% Of them were over 40 years old, 
particularly on CW, where after a num- 
ber of contacts I began wondering ft 
radio was just a place for retired peo- 
ple! Thts age difference is probably 
one of the reasons why the young 
guys I met became such good friends. 

So, why not try to bring young 



hams and SWLs together through an 
international radio club? This would be 
a good opportunity for them to com- 
municate, since many have VHF-UHF 
licenses or only receivers. Also, the 
boys and girls who are not yet li- 
censed and are trying to get into ama- 
teur radio would be welcome to the 
club. A newsletter or small magazine 
will be pubHshed so that members 
may share their ideas about radio, as 
well as other interests, Including com- 
puters, travel, music, etc. 

So, if you are under age 30 and en- 
joy ham radio, join us and lef s have 
tun together! Send your photograph 
and a brief description of yourself to; 
Mike Page! WB9QFW, University of 
Wisconsin ^ Stevens Point, Wl 54481 
U.S.A. {Andrei "Andy' Trubachov 
UA3PiP, 301264 Russia, Tutskaya 
Obi Lipki, UL Gagarina W. K. 14] 

HONG KONG 

Phif Weaver VS6CT 

Rat 39C Two Park Towers 

1 Kings Road 

Hong Kong 

Eric Lee VS6EL, a keen and enthu- 
siastic amateur since 1977, is up and 
leaving for Australia. By the time you 
read this he wili have set up home in 
Sydney. We are sorry to see you leave 
us, Eric, but wish you welt in your new 
home and hope that we shall be hear- 
ing fn^m you when you get on the air 
soon. 

Christmas is behind us and both 
clubs had excellent Annual Dinners. As 



a result, talk is already in progress 
about next year's dinner. It was noted 
that perhaps we might have a joint An- 
nual Dinner, but at a recent meeting of 
ELARCS it was felt that, as this is the 
only major social event of the year, and 
because we did not wish to lose our 
identity, tine vote was all in favor of re- 
taining our existing arrangement. We 
have already made a booking for the 
first weekend in December at the Royat 
Hong Kong Yachj Club again. This 
does not mean to say we would not 
wish to have a joint annual event. It was 
suggested for further discussion be- 
tween HARTS. JAROC.NH, and 
ELARCS that perhaps a Spring Chi- 
nese Dinner might be the way to go in 
1994„ without chasing door prizes but 
just to have a pleasant social gathering 
of all the various elements of amateur 
radio under one roof. If you, our read- 
ers, have any ideas or proposals in this 
matter, please approach your club com- 
mittee members with your ideas. 

ISRAEL 

Ron Gang 4X1MK 

Kibbutz Urim 

D. Negev 85530 

Israel 

Hi to all. The June issue of 73 
marked the tenth anniversary of the 
publication of my first contribution to 
"73 International/ Amazing how fast 
those years have breezed by and how 
the scores of my contributions have 
added up. Going through the back is- 
sues shows how much ham radio has 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1 993 77 



developed in my country in so many 
different areas. I don't l<now for sure, 
but I would hazard a guess that I'm 
your most veteran H ambassador stilt 
appearing regularly in the column 
without a break. 

For the record, I am 43 years old^ 
married with one child, an electrician 
by trade, have been a farmer, and stilt 
participate from time to time in the 
agricultural ventures of my kibbutz, 
Tve held a ham license since 1965, 
RF being a long-term addiction that I 
have not succeeded in shaking. I've 
dabbled in many facets of the hobby 
over the years, including 160 meters 
DXing and generai HF Dxing and rag- 
chewing, and built all my own anten- 
nas. My latest interests in the hobby 
are satetltles {mainly OSCAR 13) and 
VHF packet. I am also an artist, with 
paintings mainly, but not exclusively, 
celebrating the piains cf the western 
Negev region of Israel. Some of these 
paintings may be found in private cot- 
lectians in Israel, Holland, the U.S., 
and Canada. 

From time tb time a reader will write 
me with a specific request for informa- 
tion or with a desire to set up a sked. 
The demands of a busy, working life 
do not aliow me to accede to all these 
requests as time is a very scarce 
commodity. However, over the past 
10 years I believe that I have covered 
almost every facet of Israeli ama* 
teur radio, and looking up the back 
issues of 73 will provide most of the 
answers. 



OKINAWA, JAPAN 

David Cowhig 7J6CBQ/WA1LBP 

AmCon Nsha 

FBU PSC 556, Box 840 

FPO AP 96372-0840 

The China Radio Sports Associa- 
tion strongly encourages home-brew- 
ing by Chinese hams. One enterpris- 
ing Chinese ham In Shandong 
Province found a pre-1949 ham radio 
book and built a working, but unfortu- 
nately chirpy, two-tube transmitter with 
which he worked Chinese and foreign 
stations. Unfortunately, the parts, the 
test equipment and the level of these 
beginning Chinese ho me -brewers are 
not good enough to buM home-brew 
equipment which meets the strict Chi- 
nese signal stability and Jsand width re- 
quirements. A CO Taiwan ham maga- 
zine article concludes that once Chi- 
nese hams are able to buy fairly sim- 
ple transceivers, their persistent ef- 
forts to learn foreign languages and 
CW wili put them in touch with hams 
worldwide. The author predicts that 
Chinese ham radio wilt one day be as 
flourishing as Japanese ham radio. 

Sending Chinese hams copies of 
some of the best home-brew construc- 
tion articles which have appeared in 
US. Japanese, and other ham maga- 
zines is one way foreign hams can 
help. The fanguage barrier and the dif- 
ficulty of adapting a design to locally 
available parts are obstacles to the 
Chinese ho me -brewer, however. Per- 
liaps Chinese magazines could reprint 



some of the best articles from foreign 
ham magazines if reprint permission 
could be an^anged. 

There is now no national ham mag- 
azine in the PRC. One very popular 
radio and electronics magazine, Wuxh 
andian [Radio], published by the Chi- 
na Electronics Association and the 
Renmin Youdian Chubanshe, does de- 
vote a few pages to ham radio each 
month. The address is Wuxiandian, 
Dong Changan Jie 27, Beijing, China. 
Perhaps ham magazines outside Chi- 
na could arrange with Wuxtandian, 
and whatever other Chinese radio, 
electronics or ham magazines that will 
soon appear, to exchange pemnissions 
for non-exclusfve translation and 
reprinting of articles wittnout prior noti- 
fication, just as 75 and the CQ Pub- 
lishing Co. of Japan have done for 
several years. In this way. the Chinese 
magazine can make whatever parts 
substitutions and design changes are 
needed so that Chinese readers too 
can find the needed parts more easily 
and cheaply in their own area. A sub- 
scription to this Chinese language 
electronics repair technician oriented 
magazine can be obtained through the 
Joint Publishing Co,, 9 Queen Victoria 
St., Hong Kong. 

The China Radio Sports Associa- 
tion (CRSA) wrote the "Provisional 
Rules for Regulating individual Ama- 
teur Radio Stations" at the request of 
the Chinese government to provide a 
framework whteh permitted the start of 
individual amateur radio station opera- 



tion using the BA, BD, and BG prefix- 
es on December 22, 1992. These 
rules provide that ali hams shail be a 
citizen of the PRC of at least 18 years 
of age, that radio equipment meet na- 
tional radio emission standards, that 
the equipment and station be inspect- 
ed by the provincial or special munici- 
pality CRSA, and have proper docu- 
ments from the CRSA when buying 
equipment, home-brewing or modify- 
ing equipment. The rules require on- 
air politeness, exchange of QSLs for 
international contacts, and forbid the 
use of amateur radio to promote busi- 
ness, political or religious activities. 
Amateur prefixes indicate license 
ciass: BA is for a First Ciass licensee; 
BD belongs to a Second Ciass li- 
censee; and BG is for a Third or 
Fourth Class licensee. These new 
home ham stations are often home- 
brew and run low power. Listen for 
them* 

PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC 
OF CHINA 

Rick Niu, Chief Op BYiQH 

Room 3 16, Building 25 

Tsinghua University 

Beijing 100084 

People's Repubtic of China 

Paciiet; BYIQH @ BV5AG,mPL 

0CHA.TWN.CHNAS 

VE7CfZ0VANC.BC.CAN.NA 

JASTXJPNAS 

Hunter or Niu? Please note that I've 
changed my last name from Hunter to 
Niu, my real Chinese surname, in or- 



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78 73 Amateur Radio Today • August^ 1 993 



der to avoid getting you confused. I 
am Chinese. 

TUARC SPECIAL EVENT *93 . . . 
Having received the formal approval 
from the State Sports Commission ot 
China, TUARC is going to establish a 
special event station— BT2000BJ— 
May 23 tftrough 31 and July 1 Ihfough 
31. This somewhat different callsign Is 
0xciusiv6^y dedicated to showing our 
wholehearted support to Beijing's bkj 
for the 2000 Otympic Games. We will 
mainly operate on th# SSB phone 
mode (and also CW and RTTY) on 
practically aJI HF bands, indudtng 12* 
t7, and 30 meters, especiatty 10 MHz 
CW. This mighl be the very first time 
-Br ts on the WARC barids, TWINS 
, . . Failure and Success are twtns^ 
th^ is exactly what we have learned 
from ttie recent antenna const ructk>n. 
With an outstanding txx>K on hand arxl 
with Dieter/DJ7BU's professional in* 
structlon, we got a Zepp antenna buift 
and woftdng on March 20. but later the 
haphazard weather during this lime of 
year caused some more trouble and 
crushed our well -designed, good-bo Ic- 
ing cubical quad on April 18. Thanks 
lo Dieter's confidence and our perse- 
verance, WB quickJy recovered and 
bettered the two old beams on April 
25. Another dipote was getting the at- 
tention of passers-t^y on May 1 , a real 
labor Day/ The original ground plane 
will remain and we may put up an in* 
verted V before the aT2000BJ Specia! 
Event 

CLASSROOM . . . The antenna is 



"everything* for working DX^ but not 
everything for getting skilled ops to 
wrork DX. In order to get fully prepared 
for the high likelihood of pile-ups dur- 
ing the 8T operation. Rick has started 
a 2nd session of the TUARC Amateuf 
Radio Class and has gotten 1 5 more 
students involved. AIE of this group of 
boys and giris have a good oommand 
of Er>glish and a cooperative arxJ pro- 
gressive nature. 

BT5HPW . . . Assisted by ttie Xin- 
hua News Agerx:y in Hong Kong^ ttie 
Young Pioneers of China and the 
Hong Kong Girl Guides jointly started 
their Norlh-American-lndian-type 
camp life in Hangzhoti on April 5. A 
TS'50S arxJ an AT-50 automatic an- 
tenna tuner were carried to tt>e temp- 
ing site, and the Special Event callsign 
BT5HPW remained busy on the air 
until the 19th of April. 

LARRY AND JIMMY . . . Rick had a 
lovely chat April 30 with Jimmy 
BV4AS/7 and Larry BV7/N4VA, who 
were on their way to Penghu Island 
near Taiwan, l_arry, as an American 
volunteer and the UU Region 3 Coor- 
dinator, had just come back from his 
CW leaching in Bangladesh (S21). We 
wish Larry the best at good luck ir; 
whatever he'd like to undertake in the 
future and wilt k)ok forward to leamir>g 
Morse code from hfm sofnetime soon. 

SUNSHINE COAST . . . TUARC is 
very grateful that the Sunshine Coast 
Amateur Radio Ctub {SCARC) in Aus- 
tralia sent out a quick response to our 
ham~related magazine request. Rick 




Photo B. Ron G^ng 4XJ/WK, w^o has been 73$ H^mi?BSS3dof to fsraet lof W years. 



was happy to be informed by Ron 
VK4DRC and Joe VK4GEL that a 
package has been sent via surface 
maiL "^ALMOST HAM VISIT . . . While 
busy working a European prle-up on 
April 3, Rick heard, "Hi Rick. This rs 
Ken G30CA, and I'm flyfng to Beijing 
May 5.' Ken did make the trip but. be- 
cause of a temporary change of his 
tour schedule, we were unable to have 



an eyeball QSO. TUARC would tike to 
thank Ken for the nice into and we'll 
see yoD next tinrie- 

Thank you for reading China Ham 
News. Any of your comments and/ 
or suggestions are appreciated. If at 
any time TUARC can be of help to 
you, don't hesitate to ask. Remember 
that you have quite a few fhends m 
Beijing. 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 79 



Number 23 on your Feedback card 



^^ NumDer Z3 on yot 

Special events 

Ham Doings Around the World 



Listings are free of charge as space permits. Please send us your Speciaf Event 
two months in advance of the issue you want it to appear in. For example, if you 
want ft to appear in the January issue, we should rec&iye it by October 3t Provide 
a dear, concise summary of the essentiai details about your Special Event ^ Check 
Special Events Fife Area §n on our BBS (603-924-9343). for listings that were 
too iate to get into pubtiaation. 



AUG1 

CROOKED LAKE, IM The annual Land 

of Lakes Angola Hainfest. sponsored by 
the Land of Lakes ARC, will be hetd al 
Steuben County 4-H Park from 6 AM-1 
PM. Tafk-in on 147.1 BO; packet: 145.090; 
444.358-131.8 tone; 224.94 and 53.050 
Angola Rplrs. Contact Sharon Brown 
WD9DSP, 905 W. Parkway Or, Pleasant 
Lake IN 46779. Tel (219} 475-5897. 

AUG 8 

MINERALWELLS, WV The Mid-Ohlo 

Valley ARC will hold tlneir 5th annual 
Hamfest at the 4-H Campgrounds from 7 
AM-4 PM. Talk-in on 146.745/.145 and 
443,050/,550. Contact Ron Ferrelt 
WD8RGZ, {614} 423-5482, or Bill Mc 
Clure WF8U, (304) 485-7777. 
PEOTONE, IL The 59th annual Ham- 
fssl/Computer Festival, sponeorecf by the 
Harnfestsrs RC, Inc, of Chicago, will be 
held from S AM-3 PM DST at the Wilt 
County Fairgrounds. Talk-in FM STARS 
and KARS Rptrs. will be used: STARS 
146.64, KARS 146.94, and 146.52 sim^ 
plex. Club call is W9AA. Contact David F. 
Braset NF9N, Ham festers Radio Club, 
7528 W. 109th PL. Worth IL 60482. Tel. 
(708) 448-9432. 

WHITE PLAINS, NY The Westchester 
County Center will be the site for the 
American Radio Relay League — Eastern 



New York Section Convention. Sponsor: 
Westchester Emergency Communica- 
tions Assn. Vendor spaces must be re- 
served fn advance. Contact WECAFESJ 
'93, Jeanne RaffaelH N2NQY, 544 Man- 
hattan Ave., Thornwood NY W594. Tel. 
(914} 962-9666. 

AUG 13-15 

VERNON, CT The 19th Annual Eastern 
VHF/UHF/SHF Conference will be hetd at 
the Quality Inn (on the Hartford Turn- 
pike). To get a registration form, write 
(with SASE) to: Byron Btanchard NfEKV, 
16 Round Hill Rd.. Lexington MA 02173. 
For room reservations, contact Lorl Tozi- 
er, (203} 646-5700. Special rale avail- 
able. 

AUG 14 

BURLINGTON, VT The Burlington ARC 
will hold their BARC 41st Int t. Hamfest at 
the Old Lantern Campground^ Green- 
bush Rd., Charlotte VT. For camping info, 
call ($02) 425-2120. Talk-in on 
146.61/d, 146.94A34, 146.52 simplex, 
ARRL VEC Exams. For general info^ call 
David Berteau, (302) 893-7660^ 
RHINELANDER, Wl The Northwoods 
ARC^ the Rhine lander/Tomahawk Rptr, 
Assn., and the ARRES, will co-sponsor a 
Swapfest at the Sugarcamp Town Hail 
(12 miles north of Rhine Eander on Hwy. 



17), from 8 AM-3 PM. VE Exams at 9 
AM; registration at 8:30 AM. Taik-in on 
146.94 Rhinelander Rptr.; also, 145,43 
Tomahawk Rptr. For table info, write to 
Glenn Woods N9GRF, 6569 Hillcrest Dr, 
Rhinelander Wl 5450t 

AUG 14-15 

HU^^'SVILLE, AL The 1993 Huntsville 
Hamfest/ARRL Nat'l. Convention, will be 
hosted by Huntsville Hamfest, inc. at the 
Von Braun Civic Center, beginning at 9 
AM both days. Talk-in by K4BFT will be 
on 146.34/.94. Contact Huntsviite Ham- 
fest, P.O. Box 12534, Huntsville AL 
35815. Tel. (205} 534-71 75. 

AUG 15 

CAMBRIDGE, MA The MIT Electronics 
Research Soc, the MfT Radio Soc., and 
the Harvard Wireless Club will hold a 
Ftea Marked from 9 AM -2 PM at Albany 
and Main St. Talk-tn on 146.52, and 
449.725/444.725 - pi 2A - WlXM/R. Get 
details by calling (617) 253-3776. 
EASTON, PA The Delaware-Lehigh 
ARC, Inc. Compute r/Hamfest will be held 
at the Career fnst. of Tech. beginning at 8 
AM- VE Exams. Talk-in on 14670 W30K 
Rptr, Contact Bill Goodman K3ANS, 
(215} 253-2745 Of (215) 258-5063. Also 
call the DLARC Answering Service ^ (215) 
820-9110. 



QUINCY, IL The Western III. ARC will 
hold their Swapfest (rom 8 AM-£ PM at 
the Eagles Alps Lodge, 3737 N. 5th St. 1 
mi N of US 24 and N 5th St. intersection. 
VE Exams. ARRL table. Talk-in on 
147.6a/.03, and 146,34/.94. Contact Rod 
Simon N9MCX, c/o WIARC, P.O. Box 
3132, Quincy a 62305. 

AUG 21 

ITHACA, NY The Fnger Ukes Hamfest 
will be held at the Armory BIdg., Rt. 13 
and Hanshaw Rd. The Tompkins County 
ARC will host this event from 7 AM-3 PM. 
VE Exams - No walk-ins - Register by 
Aug. 3rd. Talk-in on 146.37/.97. Contact 
Ross N2ISU, c/o TC.A.R.C, P.O. Box 
4144, ithaca NY 14352-4144. Tel (607} 
257^511. 

AUG 22 

MARYSVfLLE, OH The Union County 
ARC will sponsor their 17th annual 
Marysville Hamfest/Computer Show at 
the Fairground in Marysviiie OH (near 
Columbus). VE Exams on a walk-in basis 
only. Contact Don Sabins N8MGJ, 15704 
JoHy Rd., mrysvilfe OH 43040. Tel (513) 
642-0475. 

ST CHARLES, MO The St, Charles 
ARC will host Hamfest93 at the 

Continued on page 32 



Number 24 on your Feedback card 



H^k Numoer dn on your heedoacK 

Dealer directory 



DEUVWARE 
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nut, Astron, Larsen. arvd much nrtore. 
DELAWARE AMATEUR SUPPLY, 71 Mead- 
ow Road, New Caslte DE 19720, (302) 328- 
7728. 

NEW JERSEY 

Lodi 
North Jersey's newest Two Way Radio and 

Electronics Dealer 1$ now open. Sales of 
Ham. Business, Marine and C.B. two way 
equipment as well as Scanners, Shortwave, 
Electrorfic Kits, Antennas, Bcioks, Cable Box- 
es and more. Friendly sen/ice and low prices. 
Advanced Specialties, 114 Essex Street, 
Lodi HJ 07644. (2gi) VKF-2067. 

NEW JERSEY 
Park Ridge 
North Jersey's oldest and finest Shortwave 
and Ham Radio Dealer, Three minutes 
from Garden State Pkwy and NY Thruway 
Autt^orized Dealers for AEA, Alpha Delta. 
Diamond, ICOM, Japan Radio Company^ Ken- 
wood, Vectronics. Yaesu, Ham Sales, Lee 
WK2I GILFER SHORTWAVE, 52 Park Ave,, 
Park Ridge NJ 076S6. {201 ) 39^7867. 

NEW YORK 
Manhatlan 

Manhattan's largest and only ham Radio 
Store, also full line of Business, Marine, Avia- 
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Celluiar Phones and Beepers, Large selection 
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M'F, &-6 p-m.; Sat,, 10-5 p.m., Sun. 11-4 p.m. 
We ship WoriiMider Call, Fax, or write for in- 
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HAM and Business Radios . . . BARRY 
ELECTRONICS, 512 Broadway, New York 
NY 10012. (212) 925-7000. FAX (212) 925- 

70Ot. 

OHiO 
Cdumbus 
Central Ohio's iu 11 -line authorized dealer for 
Kenwood, iCOM, Vaesu, Alfnco, Japan Radio, 
Standard, AEA, Cushcraft, Hustler, Diamond 
and MFJ. ISlew and used equipment on dis- 
play and operational in our new 10,000 sq. ft. 
facirity Large SWL Department too. UNIVER- 
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866-4267. 

PENNSYLVANIA 
Trevose 
Authoffzed factory safes and service, KEN- 
WOOD, ICOM, YAESU, featuring AMER- 
ITRON. saw, MFJ, HYGAIN, KLM, 
CUSHCRAFT, HUSTLER, KANTHONtCS. 
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Publications, and much more. HAMTRONICS, 
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1M47- (215) 357-1400. FAX (21 5) 355-8058. 
Sales Order 1-800^26-2820. Circle Reader 
Service 29i for more information. 



Ham help 



Numtier 25 on your Feedback card 



Dealers: Vour company nameBffid mess^e can eoniatn i/p to 50 woftfs lor as lilUe as $4S0 yearty (prepaid}, or $^10 
lor 9iK months (prepaid). No m^nf(ion o( Hiajl-ofdef business please. Kiedoiy leitt and paymenl musl reach i^ 60 
days ifi advice of publication. For example, advertising Jor the Aprl '92 tssue must be in mir hands by February 1st 
Mail to 73 AjTiateyr R^i^ Twtey, 70 Bte. 202 N , PeEetlwrougli, NH 03458 

80 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 



We are happy to provide Ham Help 
listings free on a space available basts. 
To make our job easier and to ensure 
that your fisting Is correct, please type 
or print your request clearly, double 
spaced, on a full 8 1/2" x 11*' sheet of 
paper. You may also upload a listing 
as E-mail to sysop, to the 73 BBS/Spe- 
cial Events Message Area #fT. (2400 
baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, 
(603) 924-9343). Use upper- and low- 
er-case letters where appropriate. Al- 
so, print numbers carefully^a 1, for 
example, can be misread as the letters 
1 or L or even the number 7. Specifi- 
cally mention that your message is for 
the Ham Help Column. Please remem- 
ber to acknowledge responses to your 
requests. Thank you for your coopera- 
tion. 

Manual/Schematic? B&K 445. EICO 
372, EICO 330, SEMCOR RC115, TS- 
888. Marvin fi^oss W4UXJ, Box 28601, 
Atlanta QA 30358. 

I am a Grade 7 teacher and for the 
past three years have been teaching 
Ham Radio as an extra-curricular class 
for Grades 6 to 9, On May 2, 1 993, our 
supply room was broken into and the 
nr>ajorily of our radio equipnnent, which 
cor\sists of VHF and UHF gear, was 
stolen. Because of our I incited budget, 
this equipment cannot be replaced. 
and therefore, we are seeking dona- 
tions of any type. Your help will be 



greatly appreciated. I will reimbyrse 
shipping and any other costs incufred. 
Please forward to Jay Goldring, 327 
Seneca Ave., Burlington Ontario. 
Canada L7R-2Z8. 

Wanted'. Simple, inexpensive re- 
ceivers or transceivers for 5.735 MHz 
USB, for 12 volts DC or less. Could be 
in kit form. Needed for use in Zaire, 
Africa for communication between 
churches. What are the possibilities? 
Keith Gustafson KBODRU, BP 1377, 
Bangui, Central African Republic, 
Africa. 

Can anyone provide me with 
schematics or manuals for the Gonset 
G-66B mobile receivers? I will gladly 
pay reasonable fees. At Cikas 
KA9GDL, 412 Radford Dr., Sheanan IL 
62684. 

Needed: Manual and schematic for 
a Tempo One SSB Xceiver. Thjs is the 
Yaesu ^'white face" unit with transistor- 
ized VFO. I will gladly pay reasonabfe 
copy and shipping charges. Thanks 
and 73^s. Pretty Ogtetree NONtlAC, 
3609 Bray Ave., Columbia MO 65203- 
0877. Tel (314} 445-2662. 

I am looking for info, manual and 
schematics, for a D&A Maverick HF 
amplifier. I have been ynable to con- 
tact the company. If you can help, 
please call Jim Hassen KB3ANX, (301) 
422-1209. 



A 



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Amateur Networking Supply- .27 

An^c o Corpor ati on ..„„ „„75 

Aineritron ,„.., ............55 

A ntennas West »« , . »«.» 26 

Aotenrras West ,„„„^,„, ,76 

Anterirras West „„.„,...,..... ,. ..77 

Antennas West ,.,...., ,„,,..,..._,78 

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Astron Corporation , .„,.^3 

Azden Corporation „..r.^„,„=. 5 

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BajTv Electronics Corporation ..„ 21 

es & W Printing „.. 88 

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Sox Products , 17 

Buckm aster Publishing ....„,...,..„,... ,76' 

Buckm aster Publish log , . 91 * 

Buckinaster Publishing. 77* 

Buckm aster Publish ing ....... .„ 78* 

Burgtiardt Amateur Radio ...........15 

Byers Chassis Kits ,. ,„.....*.... 93 

C&J Engraving *,..„* 83 

C & S Sales, Inc ....71 

CQ City InierTTaiional 77 

CelMar Security 17 

U I I l|^-^ ™ Ml^l r J B-aj ■ ■ L.1.B BBLJAbLkHH" ^ + + i h* + H 1 i r + a I- b + h ri ■ «■* F O" 

CM Technologies .^S 

Corrmunication Concepts, fnc 92 

Communications Specialists, Inc 35* 



15 
^2 
199 
146 
150 
1S1 
1S 
231 

114 

* 

157 

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199 

83 

75 

33 

113 

251 

169 

m 

193 
291 
192 

162 
358 
293 
179 

iqo 

77 

42 

112 

295 

175 

39 

55 

240 



page 

Comteico ........„,,..„..93 

Connect Systems , 39 

Craay Bobs 9! 

CreatiH/e Control Products ..........17 

Digital Audio Equipment ........».....,76 

Dig ital Comniif ni cations ,.„., .,^.,„. .JB 

Doug Hall Electron ics. ......43 

Douglas RF Devices 63 

Down East Microwave 43 

Down East IVlicrowave ., .*.,.. 92 

E. H. Yost. 38 

Eavesdropping Derection .78 

ccnotraK ..,..,..„.....,.... ..,4. ^ ,.,4 . ,,.i ., mi , >.+« < t ■ / 9 

Electron P rocessing . . „.. . .,. . .,. ..,,92* 

Emcom Industries ,...„..„.., ..78 

Engineering Consulting ,...,.„3S 

ERM/Electronic Liquidators 91 

EUfl AM Electronics „. „ .A3 

Fair Radio Sales ,.„... .,79 

FB Enterprises ..........65 

Flytecraft ,.,. „.....-......, ....,..,..17 

G & G Electronics,... 65 

Get-Tech..., ,...„....„,„*.........». ...64 

GGTE .». .,.».,...88* 

GraclHs. --.«--.-. .43 

Grapevine Gn^up .31 

Haintronics, Inc. ....--..»»....,-.»..7 

tHome Of ThB Faxcap »»m»i^h»h.i.»i»>77 

IC EngEneering .......,.,,..„.64 

loom. ..CV2' 

Interconnect SpeciaFists 81 

Interflex Systems 77 

Isolron ,., -„.. ,H.... .89 

ITG .,,.2 

Itech ..B9 

J*Com .,....„B3 

J-Com , 20 

J.MS 71 

Jan Crystals .,.31 



R.5.# page 

159 Japan Radio............. .........13 

285 JP3 Communications......... .....,..,65 

• K-Comm.. 43 

46 K-Quest Software 89 

2 Kawa Productions................ ......26 

1 51 KDC Sound 26 

• Kenwood U S A Co rporation , CV4 

234 Lent! ni Comm un coations. .87 

47 Link-COm ..,,...,.„.^.,...^,.^.+^^^++...M..*+.1^^^67 

243 Luke Company 9t 

233 Maingatc Resources, ..........92 

86 M FJ Ente rprises .... .*^, ,-►........ ..^h . .^t- . , .47 

66 MFJ Enterprises ,.1i 

1 60 M ic ro Com puter Concepts h .- . ....89 

144 Micro Control Specialities........... .61 

30 Micro Video Prod ucts ..., , .,72 

24 Midwest Woo<^ Products .„-... 79 

246 MoTron E lectronics . . , .^.. .91 

54 NGG 41 

114 Mr, Nl^cad ....38 

1 Number One Systems Ltd ..73 

82 Oak Hills Researcti 59 

1 02 ONV Safety Belt ,26 

88 Oren Elliot Products .......................49 

• PC. Electronics , ........89' 

» PC. Etectronics, ........72' 

178 Pacific Cable Company, ................. ...17 

233 Packet Power ..92 

• Pauldon 73 

68 PeriphOK .......38 

19s Personal Computer Repeater 

ControEier , 26 

249 Phillips Industries, Inc. ., 92 

31 1 Piortee r H i f I Software. . .... ..... ..... .... . ... ,93 

394 PKT Eleclronigs....... 93 

*iiT r^oiypnasor ....,....,...+,...... ...................mU 

147 R.L Drake Company..... 59 

110 Radio Amateur Satellite .,86 

1 53 Radio City , ,..49" 

58 Radio Engfneers ...........76 

• Radio Rin., ....,.,. 81 

■ RAI Enterprises .,... ...83 



R.S.# page 

• BAi Enterprises.,.,... .,.38 

34 Ramsey Eiectronics 19* 

171 RF Enterprises 88 

" RF Parts Company 27* 

134 Rose 93 

254 Ross Distributing 68 

• RT Si^stems 79 

71 Rutiand Arrays .,83 

294 S&S Engineering...... 27 

• Sams ..79 

38 Scrambling News....... ................ .......89 

167 Sescom, Inc 89 

• T3 Amat&ur Radio Tt^Say. ...29 

188 SGC Ina.................. ....SS 

139 SGCInc , , ...67 

250 Software Systems 83 

244 Software Systems 68 

1 33 S peel ru m I ntemational ................. .... .7 1 

247 Siartek , 1 

93 Tejas R F Technologies .., ,9 1 

124 T^txas Bug Catcher Antenna 92 

• The Ham Center 43 

384 The Ham Contact...................... .33 

269 Tigertronkis....... ............85 

1 54 Ttm e wa ve Tech nof ogy 67 

299 Town send Eiectron tcs 76 

22 Tri-Ex 69 

190 U.S. Oigttai 76 

• Universal Radio .........84* 

• Vanguand Labs .,..63 

259 Versatei Communications .43 

14 VHF Communicattons 93 

278 Virginia Beach Hamfest .,..84 

104 Vis Stiidy GuideSp JnCv .,.........,...,,...,, .43 

191 W & W Associate... ...37 

20 Wolfe Communications .....43 

94 Xpenek....,,, .- ....71 

• Vaesu ElectfonicsCoipo ration. ..CV3.51 
" ZD Engineering ...17 

Bold listings are 73's new advertisers this month. 

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TS Amateur Radio Today August, 1993 81 



Blancnette Park, 6;30 AM-2:30 PM. Ven- 
dor area open 9 AM. Talk-in on 
146.07/.67. Contact Scott Schuttz 
NOUVM, 241 Burning Leaf Dr., St. Peters 
MO 63376, Tel (314) 928-7267. VE Ex- 
arn pre-registration: (314) 524-3254, 
TOWSON, MD The 3rd annual Moos# 
ARC Ham and CompLrterfesl wiJl be held 
8 AM '4 PM at the Loyal Order of Moose, 
Towson Lodge 562. Ta[k-in on 145.330 
and 224.12. Advance registration and In- 
fo, N'^ck Nlckies WZ3J, (410) 668-2363, 
or write: loyal Order of Moose, Towsor} 
Ladgs 562, MOOSEFEST, 8801 Myfan- 
derln., Towson MD 21286. 

AUG 22-23 

ALBUQUERQUE, MM The New Mexico 
Army Nat'l. Guard Armory, 600 Wyoming 
Blvd. N,E., will be the location for the 
Duke Ctty Hamfest/ARRL Section Con- 
vention. Sponsors: The Duke City Ham- 
fest and associated Clubs. Talk-in on 
147.10 MH2 Rptr. (+600 kH^), Rio Ran- 
Cho KSBI. SASE to: The Duke GityHam- 
fest, P.O. Box 6552, Albuquerque NM 
87197'6552. 

AUG2fi 

CHAFFEE, NY The PROS (Pioneer Ra- 
dio Op, Soc.) wili sponsor a Hamfest 
from 6 AM -5 PM at M anion Pk. Talk -in on 
145.390 and 444.175. Contact PaulSum- 
skf KA2ZMC, P.O. Box 334, Arcade NY 
14009. Tel. (716) 492-3193. 
FREDRiCKSBURG, VA Call AC4SK at 
(703) 373-7076: or AC4MB at (703) 891- 
553 1, for details about VE Exams to be 
conducted at the Central Rappahannock 
Library. 

GAINESVILLE, TX The Cooke County 
ARC> Inc. will host its 2nd annual Ham 
Pest at the Civic Center beginning at 9 
AM Sat. morning. Set-up Fri. Aug. 27th 
from 4 PM-9 PM and Sat. Aug. 28th from 
e AM-9 AM. VE Exams, afl classes. 
GARDNER, MA The 1st annual Flea 
Market to be sponsored by the Mohawk 
ARC, will be held rain or shine at Mo- 
hawk Drive-ln Theater. Talk-In on 
145.370 -600, Contact BHi WJIY at (508) 
939-2643. Doors open at 0800 hrs, 
MANVILLE, NJ The Somerset County 
ARS will hold its annual Hamfest at the 
Manville Civil Defense BIdg. at 60 Weiss 
St„ starting at AM. Talk-In on 443.175 
(-5), 224.88 (-1.6), 146.53 simplex. Call 
Hon Waikoviak N2RPK, (908) 685- J 191, 
6 PM-9 PM; or Pete Sepesi WA20CN, 
(908) 722-2890. 6 PM-9 PM. 
ROSEAU, MN A Hamfesl will be held by 
the Woods Rptr. Assn., at the Roseau 
High School Gym, Hwy. #11 E,, begin- 
ning at 10 AM. VE Exams. Talk-In on 
147.69/.09 and 146.40/147.00. Reserve 
before Aug. 20lh. Contact D^vid Landby 
KBOHAP, nte. 3 Box 10^ Warroad MN 
56763. TeL (218) 386-1092. 

AUG 2d 

LEBAMON, TU The Short Mountain Rp- 
tr. Club Wfjl hofd a Hamfest at Cedars of 
Lebanon State Pk., U.S. Hwy 231, 7 
miles S of 1-40. Time: 7 AM-3 PM. Talk-m 
on 146.91. Contact M&ry Alice Fanning 
KA4GSB, 4938 Danby Or, Nashvifle TN 
37211. Jei. (615) 832^3215. 
YONKERS. NY Vonkers Mynicipa] Park- 
ing Garage, on Main St., will be the loca- 
tion for tlie Hamfest/Computerfest being 
held by The Yonkers ARC, from 9 AM 3 
PM. Talk-fn on l4e.B65/R, 440.1 50/R. 
and 146.52 Simplex. Get the details from 
John WB2AUL (914) 963-1021; or Jim 
N20NM, (914) 969-5182. 

SEP 3^4 

ALOMOGOHDO, NM The Alamogordo 
ARC will hold its 9th annual Hamfest on 
Fri.. Sep. 3rd, from 3 PM-9 PM; and Sal, 



Sep. 4th from 8 AM-2 PM. VE Exams wili 
be held on Sat. at 9 AM for all classes; 
call ate Jorgensen WASfPS, (505) 437- 
5896. For Hamfesl Info, contact Bill Lee- 
han N5SUM, (505) 437-978 L 

SEP 19 

RAWHIDE, AZ Thirteen local Amateur 
radio clubs of Phoenix AZ will sponsor a 
Family Amateur Radio Event beginning 
at 10 AM at a Pavilion in Rawhide. Loads 
of events. Talk-in on 14676, For details, 
write to: FARE, PC. Box 9219, Phoenix 
AZ 35068. 

SPECIAL EVENT STATIONS 

JUL 29-AUG 1 

OSHKOSH, Wl Members of the Fox 
Cities ARC will operate W9ZL 8 AM-5 
PM daily, from the Experimental Aircraft 
Assn. Fly-In and Convention (a! the ^Pio- 
neer Airport" adjacent to the EAA Avia- 
tion Museum). Operation will be on the 
General phone portions of the HF bands ^ 
as well as RTTY artd CW, as conditions 
permit. The Club will also be giving "on 
grounds" convention info on 146.520 sim- 
plex. To get a 8 X 10 certificate, send 
proper QSL and SASE only to Wayne 
Pennings WD3FLJ, 913 N. Mason, Ap- 
pfetonWi 54914. 

AUG1 

SKOKIE, IL Members of the Orchard Vil- 
lage RC will operate N9HEL from 1600- 
2300 hrs., in the lower 2S kHz of the 
General 20, 1 5 and Novice 10 meter SS8 
subbands (depending on band condi- 
tions). Orchard Village is a residence for 
the developmenlally disabled, and this 
station will give their radio club members 
(all studying for t^ovlce class (icenses) an 
opportunity to practice their skElls, as well 
as demonstrate amateur radio to other 
residents and guests. For a QSL, send 
your QSL and SASE to Gloria Beverly, 
c/o Orchard Vittage. 7670 Marmora, 
Skokie IL 60076. 

AUG 7-8 

LANNON, Wl Special Event Station 
W9WK, win be operated by the Milwau- 
kee A.R.E.S., 0200Z Aug, 7-2000Z Aug. 
8, to celebrate the 3rd annual "Picnic 
Ham'' held at Menomonee Pk. Operation 
will be in the General phone and CW 
bands on 75, 40, 20, 15 and 10 meters. 
For a certificate, send QSL and a 9 x 12 
envelope (with 2 units of postage) to 
W9WK c/o John ieekly 757 N. Broad- 
way, Suite 306, Milwaukee Wl 53202, 
WIT. DAVIS, PA The Somerset County 
ARC will operate NJ3T from the Htghest 
point in Pennsylvanta. Operation will be 
on the bwer 50 kHz of the General class 
phone bands, on 10-80 meters as condi- 
tions allow. For a certificate, send QSL 
and SASE to Jim Crowley NJ3T, H.D. 5 
B0X223A, Somerset PA 15501 

AUG 13^SEP e 

ISLINGTON, ONX, CANADA Station 
VE3CWE, Toronto, wifl operate 1400Z- 
0200Z, in conjuction with the Canadian 

Natl. Exhibition. Frequencies: Even 
hours: 14.015 MHz, CW and SSB; 
14,150 MHz SSB listening; Odd hours: 
7.020 MHz, CW and SSB; 7.075, SSB 
listening. For details and QSL response, 
mail lo VE3CNE, P.O Box 307 Stn. H, 
Toronto, Canada M4C 5J2. 

AUG 14 

MIAMISBURG, OH Members of the 
Mound ARA will operate W8[>YY 1200Z- 
2200Z; the phone portion and Novice 10 
meters, General portion of 20 and 40 me- 
ters, to celebrate the 175th Anniversary 
of Miamisburg. For QSL card, send 
SASE to MARA, c/o Jeem Newland 



WB8RXI, 240 Cariwood Dr., Miamisl)urg 
OH 45342. 

AUG 14-16 

BENNINGTON, VT The Southern VT 
ARC will operate N1JIF 1400Z-0500Z, to 
commemorate the Battle of Bennington 
and the 3rd Anniversary of SOVARC. Op- 
eration will be in the 80- 1 5 meter General 
phone subbands and the No vice 10 me- 
ter phone subband. For parchment certifi- 
cate, send QSL card, contact no., and a 
9x12 SASE to Micky Corrow NUIF, 
RR2 Box 48, Bennington VT 0520 U 
9537. 

AUG14-18 
ST. PAUL ISLAND, NOVA SCOTIA 

Members of the West Island ARC of 
Montreal are pianning an expedition to 
St. Paul Island, and plan to operate Sta- 
tion cy9CWI in CW, SSB, and RTTY. 
Operations begin at OOOOZ Aug 14 and 
will continue through Aug 1B. Tfmes are 
tentative. Frequencies: CW (MHz) 1.835, 

3.505, 7.040, 10.120, 14.035, 18.105, 
21,040, 21.120, 28.050; SSB (MHz) 
1.840, 3J80, 7,205. 14,195, 18.130, 
21,295, 24.490, 28.395; RTTY (MHz) 
3.590, 7.040, 14.090, 21,090, 28.090. 
Address QSLs to the West island ARC, 
inc., RO. Box 884, Pointe-Claire/Don/al, 
DC. H3R 416, Canada. Address inquiries 
to Fred Archibald VE2SEt, 130 Enjbleton 
Crescent, Points Claire QC. H9R 3N2 
Canada. 



KNOX, PA Knox-area hams will operate 
KE3CN, N3[0P, W3MBD, and KA3WJJ, 
to commemorate the annual Horse Thief 
Days Festival." Operation will be in the 
40, 20. 17, and 15 meter bands, and 
28.350 Novice. For a certificate, send 
QSL and SASE to Gloria Bartett N3I0P, 
Box 12, Knox PA 16232. 

AUG 1S-25 

CALGARY, ALBERTA. CANADA The 
Calgary ARA will operate Station 
CH8MNP from Cameron Island {100 Kms 
from Magnetic North Pole) on 160-6 me- 
ters, all bands. Frequencies: 28460, 
28560, 14260, 21260, 7060, 3760; CW, 5 
up from bottom edge of bands. QSL to 
CARA, Box 592 Sin. M, Calgary Alberta 
T2E 5J6, Canada, Please include IRC, 
Canadia postage stamps or equivalent 

AUG 20-22 

SOCORRO, Nfifl The f^ational Radio As- 
tronomy Observatory ARC will operate 
Station NA5N for the dedication of 
N RAO'S Very Long Baseline Anay (VL- 
BA), a continent-wide system of radio 
telescopes that will be the world's largest 
dedicated astronomical instrument, 
NA5N will operate from 1800Z Aug, 20- 
0200Z Aug. 21; and from 18002 Aug 21- 
02002 Aug 22, on 80, 40, 20, 15 or 10 
meters, depending on propagation, in the 
lower portions of the General-class 
phone and CW segments. A special net 
Encluding amateurs from the VLBA anten- 
na sites and other NRAO observatories 
wili be held at 1800Z Aug. 21st on 14,250 
MHz, For QSL, send QSL and SASE to 
NRAO ARC, P.O, Box O, Socorro NM 
87801. 

AUG 21 

FRANKFORT, NY Members of the Fort 
Herkimer ARC will operate AA2AT 
1200Z-180OZ at the fairgrounds, in con- 
junction with the Herkimer County Fair. 
Operation will be on 10 meters Novice 
phone, lower portion of 15 meters Novice 
CW, and the lower portion of 15 and 20 
meters General phone, per band condi- 



tions. For a certificate, send QSL and 
SASE to FHARC, C/O Madeline M. Lofa- 
cano M2A7; 342 Fourth Ave., Frankfort 
NY 13340. 

AUG 21 22 

SAN RAFAEL, CA The Marin ARC, Inc. 
will operate W6SG 1000-1600 hrs. 
(PDT), from the clubhouse locations at 
Hamilton AFB and the San Rafael Red 
Cross, to commemorate the 60th An- 
niversary of the club. Operation will be on 
all bands r afl modes, including the Novice 
subbands. Look for W6SG at the lower 
portion of each subband. For a certifi- 
cate, send QSL and SASE to MARC, 
RO. Box 151231, San Rafael CA 94915- 
1231. 

VANCOUVER, WA Station W7AIA will 
be operated by the Clark County ARC to 
help the Northwest Antique Aircraft Club 
to celebrate the 34th annual Fly- In at Ev- 
ergreen flying field, just East of Vancou^ 
ver. Operation will be in the lower portion 
of the General phone bands; 40, 20, 15^ 
with possfble operation in the 10 meter 
novice band, and 75 meter band at night. 
For a certificate, SASE to CCARC, RO^ 
Box 1424, Vancouver WA 98668. 

AUG 21-23 

ENGLEWOOD, NJ The Englewood 
ARA, Inc. invites all amateurs the world 
over to take part In the 34th Annual New 
Jersey QSO Party. The contest is from 
2000 UTC Aug. 21-0700 UTC Aug 22; 
and from 1 300 UTC Aug. 22-0200 UTC 
Aug. 23. Get details from Englewood 
ARA, Inc., P.O. Box 528, Englewood NJ 
07631 -Q52B. 

AUG 27-SEP 6 

N. SYRACUSE, NY The Liverpool Ama- 
teur Rptr. Club will sponsor a Special 
Event Station at the 1 993 New York Slate 
Fair. A morse code lest" for children will 
also be available, with a certificate 
earned for sending their name. Operatbn 
will be from 10 AM-9 PM each day, on 
Packet, HF, and VHP, in the bottom 25 
kHz of Ihe General phone and CW por- 
tions of 80, 40, 20, 15, and 10 meters. 
The Station will be located In a 1910 Ca- 
boose owned by the CNY chapter of the 
Natl Historical Railway Soo Certificates 
will be sent for all contacts, 

SEP 1-6 

MT PLEASANT, lA The Mt. Pleasant iA 
ARC will operate WOMME at the Midwest 
Old Threshers Reunion. Frequencies: 
3970 kHz, 7243 kHz, 14271 kHz, 147,39 
f+eOO) and 444.950 (+5 MHz) Rptrs, For 
QSL, send SASE to Dave Schneider 
WDOENR, RR3, Box 307A, Ml Pleasant 
IA 52641. 

SEP 4 

PANAMA CITY, PANAMA The Radio 
Club de Panama will host XQ Contest 
Ann t versa ry Radio Club of Panama" be- 
tween 00:01 and 23:59 GMT, on 40, 20, 
and 15 meters, lo celebrate the 22nd An- 
niversary of the founding of the clutD. For 
details, contact Radio Club de Panama, 
Af^niversary Contest, P.O. Box 10745, 
Panama 4, Panania. Fax: (507) 2$-4477. 
Packet: HP1COO@HP1XNE.^PANC- 
TY.PAN.SA 

SEP 5-6 

AUBURN, IN The North East Indiana 
ARC will operate NOJHF 1400Z-2100Z 
Sep, 5 and 6, to honor the Aub urn -Cord - 
Dusenberg days. Operation will be in the 
lower 25 kHz of the General phone and 
CW bancis. 40-10 meters. For QSL, send 
QSL and SASE to NEtRC/ACD, P.O. Box 
745, Auburn IN 46706. 



82 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 



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73 Amateur Radio fodEay* August, t993 S3 



Never Say Die 

Continued from page 4 

mainly made equipment for the military. 

rd just started 73, so this bomb al- 
most put my fledgling magazine out of 
business. Worse, the ARRL proposed 
rule change also discouraged scJiool ra- 
dio clubs and almost 100% of them fold- 
ed up. 

That's when we lost our tnfrastructure 
, . . our jTiain source of new hams. Up 
until Uiat time 80% of our new hams had 
been teenagers, according to an ARRL 
study. Fifty percent of the newcomers 
were either 14 or 15 years old. Further, 
the study also showed that 80% of these 
newcomers went on to high-tech careers 
as a result of their interest tn amateur ra- 
dio. Thus, once we lost our source of 
new hams, our communications and 
electronics industries lost their major 
source of recruEts. 1 don't know how 
much this contributed to our loss of con- 
sumer electronics industries to Japan, 
but there's no way this could have made 
things better for ys. 

So here we are in 1993. I'm not reaily 
sure what good reason there is for our 
hobby in today's world and as we are 
running it We have tittie need for the 
Morse code any longer. We have little 
need for much in the way of electronics 
education since we are building little and 
repairing not. Thus, if our exams are go- 
ing to be relevant to what weVe actually 
doing, what kind of questions should be 
asked? 

We do want ops to know the rules, 
even if many ignore or flaunt them. And 
we d like them to know how to be good 
operators^ even if their personal crazi- 



ness keeps them from doing this. 11 
would be nice if they had a concept of 
how our bands are laid out and how 
each one works. Pediaps we should ask 
that tiey have an understanding of how 
the various modes work . . . what FM 
and AM mean. How SS8 works. How 
RTTY and SSTV work. How packet 
works. How to make satellite contacts. 
How repeaters work. Things iike that. It 
could be helpful If they had an under- 
standing of antennas and how to tune 
them. They might burn out fewer finals. 
And how about knowing how to tune re- 
ceivers? And how to keep from turning 
up their compression control and mess- 
ing up the band? 

1 wonder if we might be able to in- 
clude at least a basic courses on how to 
talk, something that has been sadly 
needed for years? WeVe got rag-chew- 
ers who've been saying the same stupid 
things for years, without one ounce of 
brains showing through. Their rag is so 
thoroughly chewed ifs about dissolved. 

The code. Yes, I know we need some 
sort of filter to keep the good guys out 
and let in as many crazies as we can. 
The code has served this purpose ad- 
mirably for decades. I see where an Ex- 
tra Class licensee just had his ticket 
pulied for transmitting faise distress sig- 
nals. Two other Extra Classers were put 
in prison for bad language on CB. Anoth- 
er took a gun and shot his co-workers. 
Great filler weVe been using. The only 
fairiy sane Extra Class licensees I 1^0 w 
cheated to get their tickets using the 
Sash system. 

Yes, I know all about the ITU requiring 
a knowledge of the code for operatfon 
under 30 MHz. \ also know that the ITU 



does not specify any speed, so we coufd 
just as easily let 5 wpm be the only code 
speed we check for all classes of li- 
cense. The nice ^ing about 5 wpm is 
that you don't even have to be able to 
copy the code to pass a test at that 
speed. You can just write down the dots 
and dashes and then decipher Ihem at 
your leisure. It doesn't take much effort 
to at least learn the code characters. 1 
did W one night when I was 12 and was 
getting dressed to go to a Boy Scout 
meeting. Took maybe a half hour^ tops, 
and I've known 'em ever since. 

It doesn't take long to memorize stuff 
like that I had to memorize the Greek al- 
phabet during a fraternity initiatbn. That 
took maybe 10 minutes and iVe known it 
ever since. Now and then it comes in 
handy. Handier than the code ever has. 

The Up and Down Sides 

What would be the benefit of going to 
one class of license? Well, it would save 
a lot of money and a lot of aggravation. It 
would also result in our having a iot more 
hams. And that, in turn, would 
result in our having more political clot/t 

Oh, my God, think how crowded the 
bands would getj Maybe. On the other 
hand J we need some pressure to get us 
to use the 99.9% of our allocated hands 
which we are flat out not using yet. We 
also need some kind of pressure to get 
us to invent and pioneer some more 
spectrum-efficient modes of communica- 
tion. 

Oh, we moan and groan about 450 
MHz being packed solid. Baloney, It's 
packed solid with little-used repeater 
links which couid just as easiiy be moved 
to 10.5 GHz, where hundreds of them 



could all share one single frequency, 
using direclbnal antennas to prevent 
interference. 

We're busy fighting each other for 
DX, creating pile-ups and worldwide bad 
feelings. Some fairly simple digital tech- 
niques could resolve this mess in a hur- 
ry. For that matter, once we go digital, 
well be able to have our stations make 
DX contacts for us automatically in about 
a second and we'd be able to work all 
400 countries in one day* This might 
even make it so those of us who have 
leamed to tafk might be able to enjoy ac- 
tually talking with chaps in rare spots 
around the world. 

I can hear the croaking chorus of okJ- 
timers now. If we open the gales our 
ham bands wilt be as bad as the Clti- 
zen*s Band. Only hams who have (a) not 
listened to our bands in several years 
and (b) not listened to CB in years couW 
say such a dumb thing. 

Of course I don't think I've proposed 
making the ham ticket as easy to get as 
buying a CB rig, so I doubt we're going 
to be attracting very many Southern 
truck drivers. But then here you are argu- 
ing with me about how bad this would be 
and you haven't asked me what I'm 
proposing in the way of a license test 
barrier. 

I know tfs unpoHtic to even suggest 
that there are classes of people in Ameri- 
ca. Well, Vance Packard many years ago 
described different classes and did a 
good job of It- We do have different 
classes and they stay fairly separate. In 
fact, they are Eess flexible these days 
than they used to be a generation or two 
ago. It used to be much easier to move 
up in ctass, 




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84 73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1 993 



The classes are divki^ by language, 
kinds of hofiies, the clothes they wear, 
the cJiibs they belong to, me kinds ol 
cars U>ey ctnve. their fumhure, the food3 
they eat and so on. Hams, as I men- 
tioned, lend to cenfef on lower middle 
dass, with almost no lower class people 
attracted 1o ttie hobby, and only a few of 
the lipper middle ctass. We have a few 
doctors, lawyers, and business execu- 
tives. but very few of these are particu- 
larly high -earners. Hams tend to center 
(n the $35,000 to $65,000 family Income 
range. 

Hie positive side of this sociological 
eKCUJ'sion is tliat, being of a similar class, 
hams tend to be able to get aiong with 
each other easiiy. It results in our abilfeiy 
lo talk aboul things of common inleresl 
during our contacts. We tend to have 
corrvnon backgrounds. If you've ever al- 
ien ded a major hamfest or convention 
you can see this . , . partictilarfy when 
you compare the mix of people with a CB 
convention. Different graijp of people en- 
tireiy So it's no wonder hams lend to 
look down on CBers. We lmven'1 com- 
pletely eradicated class consciousness 
in America yet 

Taking all that into consideration we 
have a little probFem for you to taik about 
and come up witi some ideas. If we're 
going to continue to Inave a government 
franchised and supported hobby for mid- 
dle-class white men weVe got to find a 
way to juslify our use of billions of dol- 
lars In public resources. We've got to 
come up with some solid reasons why 
tlie TfCh and the poor, and tfie other 
99.6% of the middle-class, should fund 
our fun. 

Please advise. 



Waym Hates CWI 

Our CW religious fundamentalists 
will accuse me of hating CW. I don't 
hate it I don'i k)ve it either. Do I have 
any other choices'^ Yes, I'm opposed to 
using a code lest to keep people out of 
the hobby. We tk^'X demand a typing 
test for new liams so we know they'll t^ 
adept al RTTY and packet and not 
have to sit there staring at their key* 
board, trying to find the letter they want 
We don't even ask newcomers to pass 
a spelling test 

CW is a fun mode and should be 
kept that. Those of us who enjoy batling 
out our conversations with a key should 
do it because it's lun. Instead weVe 
made the code the biggest ogre keep* 
ing people out of the hobby. That's one 
way to make absofutafy sure that few 
newcomers enjoy t^e code. 

When I first started goirvg to ham- 
fests they all had code copying con- 
tests , complete with certificates. Ilf a^ 
ways remember W2ECL ttre tocal oode 
champ, winning ttie contest at the Hud- 
son Division Convention in 193fl. He 
slaughterer^ 'em. HI bet we can make i1 
a matter of pride to be good at code by 
running competitions at hamfests and 
conventions. 

Or>e-Class License! 

Other than giving up your ability to 
be overt>earing toward those lower li- 
cense classes^ what have you against 
opening all of our bands to ail classes 

of license? 

What I'd like to see is 3 license is- 
sued by ham clubs to members who've 
demonstrated their knowledge of our 
rules, who have an understanding of 



the vanous rnodes avaiiable tO 0S» and 
wfro have strewn they know how to op- 
erate. You want to be a ham? Join a 
dub and get sorr>e training. 

Just as important wouM tie the right 
of ttre dub to take the license away if 
the member they er>dorsed does bad 
things. We nrtake it far too difficult to de- 
license our craiies, A ham license is 
not a right, it's a privifedge, and ft 
should be able to be taken away as 
easiiy as if s given. Make sense? 

I'd rather see clubs handling these 
problems instead of lawyers and ttie 
courts, 

CW Again 

I got a letter from a nervous nelly 
who was afrad of appearing in print It 
said. "I wish you'd quit picking on ali us 
old CW operators! I've been a ham 
since I was 15 and still love CW and 
work ft 90% of the time. My time on the 
aJr is fiaif rag-chewng and half DXing, 
mostly on a band you don't like, 30 me- 
ters," My answer: Dear kervous. as far 
as CW is concerned, HI be even more 
^pportive of il when you Stop insisting 
on jamming it down everyone's throat 
just because you enjoy it. CW is a fun 
aspect of Une hobby and should not be 
used as a weapon to keep out 90% of 
the kids we miginl attract out of the hob- 
by. CW is fun, but it's like playing with 
antique cars in that It's a hundred-year- 
old technology and it's palheticaliy out- 
dated. 

Japan Has t^ Million Hamsl 

Mot bad for a country with half our 
popuiation. Now, If you ihink the ham 
bands are crowded here in America, 



wait 1 1 you get anywhere near Japan! 
Its no wonder that ttiey are leading Itie 
world in UHF pioneering. It's really 
amazirtg to look through the Japanese 
CO Ham Ba6io and see ail the iantastic 
experimenting and building they are do- 
if>g. T?^t's probably one of tt^ reasons 
their electronics parts business is still 
going strong, while ours is long -gone 
unless you hit that mother oi all junk 
piles, the Dayton Hamventton flea mar- 
ket. 

When you visit Tokyo^ if youVe a 
ham you 11 be heading for the fabied Ak- 
ihabara section of town, where endless 
smail shops are teeming with young- 
sters shopping for parts. It's even better 
than the old Coniandt Street (NYC) 
shops, where i spent much of my youth 
and my allowance- 
Japan is going bananas over mobile 
radios. Ttiey had 5 million transmitters 
licensed in 1989, and have been in- 
creasing about a million a year since 
then. 

The World Direction Rndinfl 
Championship 

185 hams from 23 countries gath- 
ered In Siofbk, Hungary, last September 
to participate in the 6th World AROF 
Championship contest. No, no one was 
there from the U.S. They did have par- 
ticipants from all over Europe and even 
from Japan, China, and Mongolia! It's 
pretty sorry that we Americans couldn't 
even field one crummy team for a world 
championship ham contest like that. 1 
guess our dubs are too busy with busi- 
ness meetings to promote amateur ra- 
dio as a sport 



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73 Amateur Radio Totfay * August, 1993 85 



The 2m contest top places werewofi 
by Ukrainia, Russia, Hungary* 
Czechoslovakia, and China. The 60m 
division winners were Ukrania. Russia, 
China, Germany, Hungary, and 
Czechosbvakia, 

A Damn New Countri^ Announced? 

DXm Ksve Group Nervous 
Breakdown 

You're gCHng \q tike my sneaky plan 
for generating a whole bunch of new 
countries. CouW eventuaDy be dozens. 
Real new countries, too. IHow do t think 
thesd things up? And Ihts brainslonri 
has the added benefit of not only gen- 
e rating billions of dolJars in new busi* 
ness, but also saving the U.S. a bundle. 

bet me start from the beginning and 
show you how this whole concept de- 
veloped. It all had to do with the in^ 
creasing pleas lor the U.S. to support 
the disintegrating situation in Russia. 
Being a conservative and an en- 
Irepreneurp Tm a naturai enemy of so- 
cialism and communism, so I'm not a 
big tan of giving money away. I'm in fa- 
vor of the "teaching 'em how to fish" ap- 
pfoach. 

Financing Russia 

Russia, to no one's surprise, is in 
one heJI of a mes<s. Yes. it's a self- 
brought-Ofi mess, so we're not terribly 
inclined to ante up now that they re 
passing the hat. Just kxA at the misery 
and expense the USSR caused the 
worki over ttie last 50 yearsl 

So hefo we are at a time when our 
Congress has already tiorTOwed to the 
hi it 10 pay off lobbyists' demands for 
pork and entitlements. It's a really terri- 
ble time to see Yeltsin, tin cup in hand, 
begging to teed his slarvir>g famiiy. 

Russia, and the other ex-Soviet re- 
publics, are in awful shape. They 
haveni the infrastructure, the legal sys- 
tem, the banking system, or even a pD- 
Itical system to help them cope with 
whal's happening. Worse, the mess In 
Yugoslavia could well be just the begin' 
ning of a whole series of tribal wars. 

I had an opportunity to go over to 
Russia and The Ukraine last year with a 
University of Virginia group to help 
teach them more about capitalism and 
entrepreneuriaiism. But without roads, 
communicaLior^. power, a business-orl* 
erited legal system, food distribution, 
and so on. J didn't see how 1 could real- 
ly help much. Th^ team, on their return, 
confirmed my suspictor^. 

Well, you've got plenty of sources for 
In-depth recitals of the problems facing 
the Soviet Republics, l*ve found Foreign 
Affmirs particutarfy fielpfui, plus articles 
in Forbes, Fortune, fhe news maga- 
zines, and ffte Pubft interest 

Yes. I've visited Russia. And the 
Ukraine. 

Since Ihe coMapse of the USSR 
we're the or\ly world superpower, which 
has for some reason been tianstated in 
many minds Into America being respon- 
sibfe for solving all of the problems of 
the worEd. Not just those which pose 
threats to us. but those which pose 
threats to anyone. Methinl<s I delect an- 
other liberal agenda . . . another let's 
tax everyone and spend the money to 
do a social good." And never mind that 
the recipients wilt probably end up hat- 
ing us for It, We've never had much 
success witti buying friendship. 

Buying Things instead of Fiiendshtp 

A few years ago there was a call by 
Ihe Russian ambassador for proposed 



solutions to the probEems facing the 
USSR as communism collapsed and 
they were facing massive changes. I 
remember sending a letter with my 
proposal for solving thetr problems. I 
felt that the stngte most critical need for 
ail the new repubfics was a stable cur* 
rency Russia, for instance, needed to 
nnake the ruble convertible. To do that 
they needed lo back it with something 
which had acknowledged value. They'd 
already plundered much of their gold 
hoard, so ttiere wasn't nearly enough 
gold left lo back tfieif currency. Worse, 
to meet ihe demands for military, bu- 
reaucratic, and state-owned business 
payrolls, the printing presses were 
cfanking out tons of ever more worth- 
less rubles. 

i pointed out ttiat the Soviet re- 
publics did have one very solid asset 
which could be used to back their cur^ 
rencies. The governments own almost 
everything ... the fan d, homes, facto- 
ries, the railroads, and so on. If the ru- 
ble, for instance, could be backed by 
the real value of these assets, it could 
become convertible. The value pledged 
would have to be Internationa Ely accept- 
ed for it to work. 

Thus, if the government of a republic 
wanted to keep the aible presses run* 
ning. they'd have to pledge more and 
more of their assets to back tt>e new 
notes. This eventually would have a 
chilling effect on tfie normal buteaucrat' 
ic tendency to ignore inflation. 

This would set the stage to make it 
possible for foreign aid to be sent in ex- 
change for assets instead of mere gifts 
. . . toans. they're called. I know I'd feel 
a tot better atx>ut Amencan Loans to for- 
eign countries if I knew we were getting 
somethirg of value in return , . . some- 
thing more than hate. At least then, 
when we pour more billions into the 
Swiss bank accounts of third world 
tyrants, we'd end up owning somelhrng. 

But what about that inflation busi- 
ness? If we "buy" land at $50 an acre In 
return for lending money to a tyrant, 
what happens when the value of the 
land drops to $5 an acre? IJnk screwed 
again? Nope, if we get good vafue for 
our "loans" we could care less how bad- 
ly they inflate their currency. The prop- 
erty we get in exchange will hold its val- 
ue. 



So Why Can't They Just Take ft Back? 

The assets they're exchanging for 
loans' will on^ be recoverable if ihey 
repay the loans , , , plus mterest and 
the value of any Improvements we've 
made, and m\h mflaiion factored in. 
What J have in mind is the actual own- 
ership of any real estate or ottier prop- 
erty by the United States or any other 
loaning country, for that matter. This 
pcoperty would be ceded to us and Uius 
be a part of Amenca and not be subject 
to their laws or expropriation. Yes. this 
is a tough bargain, bui if they want to 
borrow money we need to have some 
real security to guarantee Its return 
(with interest), or something of real val- 
ue in exchange. And none of this 99- 
year lease business which has come to 
haunt Britain in Hong Kong. 

We sure could use some land for 
American military and business out^ 
posts in the countries we have been 
giving billions of dollars to. We d also 
have to be granted access via air, sea, 
and iand to our enclaves. Make sense? 
And each of these enc Eaves would obvi- 
ously count as a new country. 

The alternative of not getting our 



money is always there for the countries 
to choose. 

Again, my perspective Is from that of 
capita tism instead of sod ai ism. The so- 
cial rst impulse, which Is so slrong at 
times. Is to take from the rich and give 
to the poor. Never mind vrtiy the people 
you're taking it from are rich or why tJie 
people you're giving it lo are poor Nev- 
er mind that the poor spurned educa- 
Hon, wNle Ihe rich worked their asses 
off to be educated and then to be suc- 
cessful in their work. 

It turns out tt^t there are very few 
well-educated poor (other than teach- 
ers), and few uneducated rich. Teach- 
ers and bureaucrats, who tend to think 
in socialist terms, with disappointingly 
few exceptions, have their own self- 
made helL 

The capitalist approach is a quld- 
pro-quo. If you want money from me, 
wharil you give me for It? This ap- 
proach could put a whole new spin on 
our incredibly generous loans to the so- 
cialist country of Israel And don't you 
wish we'd ended up with more than a 
fleeting sneer of gratitude tor our Invest- 
ment in Kuwait? As I've pointed out in 
the past, gratitude is one of the least 
felt and most transient of all human 
emotions. Isn't there a platitude about 
never lending money to friends? Well, Jt 
turns out tfiat we never seem to- 

I'd love to see an American enclave 
in Jo/dan in return for the billions we 
poured into that <»untry. Hell, we'd own 
most of the south end of Israel by now if 
we'd bargarned, and we'd be able to 
build our own settlements. We might 
even be able to open some schools 
and educate the Palestinian kids to be- 
yond the rock-throwing stage of human 
development. On the other hand, wo 
could have exported our dreadful public 
school system and made theif situation 
even worse. 

It's too late in the century to call this 
20th century imperialism. We might call 
It 21st century capitalism. Jus! look at 
the success of Hong Kong, which is a 
good example of what I have In mind. 
And look at the mess they're in now 
that the colony is about to be returned 
to China. Another good example is Sin- 
gapore. And f^^acau. 

If we'd thought of this approach a 
few years ago we could by now own 
both Aqaba (Jordan) and Ellat {Israel), 
and have a prospering capitalist en- 
cJave on the Arabian Sea. This would 
have come in very handy when we 
wanted to cut Saddam off from the 
flood of food and munitions being im- 
ported through Aqaba and trucked to 
Iraq. I've personally seen the erKJiess 
truck convoys involved in that opera- 
tion. 

And instead of just flat out grving 
alms lo Egypt we could have otpanded 
the Aqaba- Eiial enoiave on down the 
Sinai Peninsula, making another Hong 
Kong or Singapore type of settlement. 

So what have we now to show for 
the billions we've poured Into Africa. 
Asia and the IVIIddie East? Bupkis. All 
we've got i^ a bunch of people who owe 
us far beyond anything repayable, and 
who hate our guts. Am I exaggerating? 

The next time Congress or the Presi- 
dent get the itch to give away money 
lefs try to talk them into getting some- 
thing of value in return. Let's get them 
to think of investing instead of giving. 
This isn't a bad concept here at home 
the next time our liberals want to throw 
money at social problems, l-at's consid- 
er how we can get something in ex* 
change. 



For instance, Tve recommended that 
kids bon-ow money (with Interest) to pay 
for their educations . . . starting from at 
least the first grade. Theyll be a lot 
more careful in how they invest it and 
not be as likely to fritter their investment 
away. The same goes for unemploy- 
ment payments and welfare. Instead of 
taking ttie money away from us in pay- 
roll deductions before we're unem- 
ployed, making us all feel as though 
this money is coming to us, suppose we 
made the payments as loans to the 
unemployed which would then have to 
be repaid from future earnings? Once 
repaid, the money would no longer be 
deducted from their paycttecks. 

But what about dead beats? Thetr 
checks could starl getting smaller when 
their total payments goi out over a cer- 
tain percentage of their most recent an- 
nual salary. Beyond that they'd have to 
report for work and do something. This 
crew could help keep streets clean, 
help in hospitals and nursing homes, 
and so on. We're not short of jobs that 
need doing that don't take a tot of edu- 
cation or experience. 

You probably share the same feeling 
1 do. When I eat out I'm paying for thai 
roll and butter, so I eal ^ . . . even If I'm 
dieting and would never eat it at home. 
It's difficult to turn down something tfiat 
you've paKJ for because it seems like 11 
isfree. 

Hmmm, 1 seem to be getttng off on a 
sidetrack again. But a good one. If 
Congress woukl insist on getting some- 
thing of value in retum for foreign ksans 
there would be fewer of them and we'd 
at least end up with something In ex- 
change for the taxes the IRS takes from 
us at gunpoint We might even be able 
to make good money with our invest- 
ments in overseas enclaves and thus 
eventually be ale to cut our taxes. 

No, I'm not promoting 21st century 
imperialism. It's capitalism, fvlefcantil- 
ism. I don't see why any enclaves we 
get in exchange for loans would have to 
be run from Washington. They would 
not be conquered territory. They'd be 
bought and paid for And, as we add 
value to the territories, their buying 
back would be more expensive for the 
seEling country . , .which would be built 
into our purchase agreement. We don't 
need to see our Investments expropriat- 
ed by new tyrant- run or socialist gov- 
emments, 

Britain had similar arrangements 
with Hong Kong. Sarawak, Brunei, 
Sabah. Australia, and other countries 
. . , al of whch I've visited , . . so IVe 
seen fii^thand how well this protective 
umbiBila has worked. 

So let's get busy and let our 
Congress know we're opposed to ttie 
oW style of foreign aid giveaways. Lefs 
stop just giving and making enemies, 
Lefs ime our help as a way to spread 
capitalism. Thai will, jn turn, tend to 
spread democracy. 

If Russia is in desperate need of a 
bailout, and if we really can afford to go 
deeper in debt to help them, let's find 
out what we can get in return. Some- 
place where we can start sewing capi- 
talist seeds in an enclave that used to 
be Russian. How about a couple thou- 
sand or so acres up around Yvborg, on 
the Baltic Sea, not far from Helsinki and 
St. Petersburg? That would be a great 
spot for a capitalist enclave, and It 
would tend to help the Russians in their 
conversion to capitalism. 111 start pack- 
ing a rig to put it on the air. 

Mow, what other countries are in that 
Ine for U.S. handouts? 



ae 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 



M^ Niimber 26 on 

Barter 'n' buy 



Humber 26 on your Feedtsack card 



Turn youf Old ham and axnputef gear ifrto cash now. Sum. yoi tan tvait iof a hamfest to try 
md dunp ill bit you toiow you I get a hr mqr« reafis^c pfxs i ym two ti out where 100 000 ac* 
ife hm potoniil buyers can see It than the few hi^re^ local hams wt>o come t^y a Bea marhet 
liblB; Chech your antic, garage, ceitai and doset shelves and get cash for your ha/n a/id comput^f 
g^r beiote it's too okJ to sel. You biow you'm riot going to usq it agaH so tM% leave H tor yo^r 
widow to Ih/ow out? That stuff isn't getting any yotmgeri 

The 73 FEea Market, Barter "n" Suy, cosls you peanuts (aJmosI)— comes lo 35 cents a word tor 
irtfividiial (noncommefciaf) acts and Si. 00 a wor^i for commercial ads. Don't plan on telling a tong 
stofy. Use abbreviations, cram it in. Birt t>e honest. There are plenty of hams who love to fix things, 
so if il doasn't work, say SO- 

Make your list, couni the words, including your call, addmss anci phone number, hclirde a 
check aryour credit card number and expiraEion. II you're placing a commercial ad, include an addi* 
tional phone nunnber, separate Irom yoyr ad. 

This is a monlhijy magazine, nol a daily newspaper, so figL;re a couple montlis boAbre the action 
smarts; then b^ pnepared. If you get loo many caiis. you priced rl low. II you don't gel many calls, too 
Ngh, 

So gel busy. Blow the dust off, check everything out, make sure it stiU works right and mayt* 
you can help make a h^n sure it still works ngiht and maybe you can help Jinke a ham nevKsomer 
or retired oM timef happy iM&i (hat ng you're not uang row. Of you nvifi Qtl busy on your oomput* 
er ar>d put together a fist o( smaij gear/parts *>o sertd te tfnse rrtnested? 

Send your ads and paymcrt 10 the Baft^ 'n Buy, Ju&f Wak^. 70 BL 2SX2H. F^SeOnm^ m 
03458 *id gel set for the phone caia 



The d^pcMne for the Septeinber clas* 
sifbd ad section is Juty 15, 1903. 

ALL ABOUT CRYSTAL SETS. Theo- 
ry and construction of crystal set ra^ 
dios. $7.95 each, ppd USA, Send to; 
ALLABOUT BOOKS. Dept. S. P.O. 
Box 22366, San Diego, CA 921 92. 

BNB200 

SUPERFAST MORSE CODE SO- 

PEHEASY. Subliminal cassette, S12. 
LEARN MORSE CODE IN 1 HOUR 
Amazing supereasy technique. $12, 
(Both, $20.) Moneyback guarantee. 
Free catalog: SASE. BAHR*T4, 150 
Greenfieklp Bkxxningdale IL 60103. 

BNB221 

03L CARDBOXES & INDEX DI- 
VIDERS. Send SASE. 7-IVfike HAM- 
STUFF. P.O. Box U455. Scottsdale 
A2 85267-445S. BNB224 

RADIOS! RECONDITIONED WITH 

WARRANTY. Drake. [COM. Kenwood, 
Yaesu. SASE tor list or call (215)437- 
5795. Buy, sell, trade, or consign- 
ments. R.RJ., P.O. Box 1041, Lin- 
wood PA 19061, BNB223 

FINALLY HEAR THOSE UNREAD- 
ABLE SIGNALS buried in QRM, elec- 
trical noise, hetrodynas. turief- uppers, 
etc. REVOLUTIONARY JPS Audio Fil- 
tefs. Digital Signal Processing. NJR- 
10: DISCOUNTED: $329 95 DEUV- 
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$350), Also new NRF-7: $235.95. or 
NF-60 DSP Notch Fiiter ELIMINATES 
MULTIPLE NOISE TONES, $139 50 
delivered!, see 3/92 "73 Mag." DON'T 
SETTLE FOR JPS CLONESE Autho^ 
rlzed Dealer DACRON ROPE. Mil 
Type, black, strong, high UV/strelch 
resistanL 3/32':$^0Sm, 3/16' (770 tb. 
test); $.ll/n. 5/16': S.16/fL OAVtS RF 
CO. FOB 230-SR. Carlisle MA 01741. 
24-HOUR ORDERS; (800)484-4002, 
CODE: 1356. FAX: (508)369-1738. 

BNB254 

QSLS-1) Famous KOAAB custom with 
tiackg round collectiofi, 2) Ftailnaad em- 
ployees arxl raiitfan's specials. 3) Front 
report styles, 4) Multiple caKsigns. 5) 
Ham business cards. State your sam- 
pie wants. 52 cent selt-addressed 
business size envelope required for 



free samples antd catakjg, MAHRE & 
SONS PRthTT SHOP, 2095 Prosperity 
Avenue. Maplewood MN 55109-3621. 

BNB290 

COMMODORE 64 REPAIR. Fast tum 
around. SOUTHERN TECHNOLO- 
GIES AMATEUR RADtO, 10715 SW 
190th Street #9. Miami FL 33157. 
(305)238-3327. BNB295 

RADIO RUBBER STAMPS free 
bn>chufe. REID ASSOaATES, 6<6dO 
Mellow Wood, West Bloomfield Ml 
48322. BNB297 

WANTED ELECTRON TUBES, ICS» 
SEMICONDUCTORS. ASTRAL P.O. 
Box 707ST, Linden NJ 07036. Call 
(800)666-8467. BNB307 

KENWOOD AUTHORIZED REPAIR, 
Also ICOM, Yaesu, GROTON ELEC- 
TRONICS, Box 379. Groton MA 
01450. (800)069-1818. BNB310 

THE RADIO CRAFTSMAN, newslet- 
ter for those who want tc build their 
own equipment. Send large SASE for 
sample issue, information. A A QMS, 
Box 3682, l_awfence KS 66046. 

BNB325 

RCI-2950 OWNERS: New modifica- 
tion manual induding Power increase. 
Ciarffief modification. Modulation in- 
crease. Operating hints, and more. 
Parts included. Only $20-00 ppd In 
U,S. (f^issouri residents add $1.15 
tax). SCOTT, RO. Box 510408, St.. 
Louis MO 63151-0408. (314)8^6- 
0252. Money Orders or CCD. 

BNB340 

CONNECTfCUrS FAVORFTE HAM 
STORE. ROGUS ELECTRONICS, 
250 Meriden-Waterbury Turnpike. 
Southington CT 06489. (203)621- 
£252. BNB355 

SWAN ASTRO 102BX, 160-10 Meter, 
power supply, antenna tuner, Heathkit 
electronic key en Misc Ham publica- 
tions induding Radio Fun, OST, and 
73 1980-present, some comptete. 
Greal beginner package. $350 takes 
all. (216)587-1308 after 2 pm EST, 

BNB360 
Continued on page 89 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1 993 87 



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88 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 993 



OFFERED PEANUTS FOR YOUfl THADE4N RIG? 
I pay cash! RADIO RECYCLERS, 7730 W. Narional 
Avenue, West Mis Wl 53214. (414)771-7121. 

BNB4Q0 

WANTED: Schematic Siltronix model 1011-C. oopy 
OK, reasonable fee. (704^333-9363 EST. BNB425 

BROWNIES OSL CARDS SINCE 1939. Catalog £ 
samples Si (refundable witfi order). 3035 Lehigh 
Street. Allento wn PA 1 81 03. BN S430 

QRP KfTS IN CANADA! CW Trartsceiver kits lor 
most barids. superior quafity, full warranty. Exciting 
new productsl Send Large SASE for catalog. "CO 
RADIO KFTS". Box 1546, Bradford, Ontario. L32- 
288 CANADA. (416)776-9119. BNB433 

CUSL CARDS- Look good with top qualrty printing. 
Choose starxjiard deslgrts or fully oustomized cards. 
Request free brochure, samptes (starnps appreciat- 
ed) from: CHESTER OSLs, 310 Commercial Dept 
A, Emporta KS 66801 . FAX (3 1 6)342-4705. BNB434 

HR251Q, HR26t}0 Lincoln Owners: Amazing new 
speech compressor circuit uses your *mike gaEn' 
switch as controller! Super loud & clear, natural 
sound. No gimmicks. Send SASE for details to: J & 
D ENTERPRISES, Dept. 73, PO Box 60228, Santa 
Bart>ara CA 931 60. BNB440 

QSL SAMPLES sefKJ Si (lefundaNe). Bud Smith. 
Box 1946. Blajne WA 96231 . BNB475 

PRQTOTfPE SERVICE FOR HOBBYISTS & EN- 
GINEERS. Single quantity ss PCB's. $10 minimum. 
No setup fee. We also scan magazine artwork. Get 
out youf back issues! FIRST PROTO, (407)392* 
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PASS THE NO CODE TEST/Easy Method.* Send 
S4 and SASE to L.W. SERVICE. PO. Box 91 . Hill- 
skle NJ 07205^2702. BNB535 

FINALLY AVAfLABLEl A rugged, reliable, reason- 
ably priced handheld carrying case, $16.85. Lifetime 
Warranty. THE CASE (800)276-61 79. BNBS80 

DON T BUY DSL CARDS UNTIL YOU SEE MY 
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and QSi business car^. Write or call for free sam- 
ples and custom card ordenng infomiation. LflTLE 
PRINT SHOP, Bon 1160, Pflugemlle TX 78660, 
(512)990-1192. BNB595 

DUPLEXER TUNING GUIDE. A complete booklet 
showing step-by-step instructions on l lining all types 
of duplexers. Included is theory of operation, de- 
tailed diagrams and much more. Send $9,95 plus 
S2.50 s&h to RGM PUBLICATIONS, 533 Main 
Street, Hiflsboro NM 88042. For faster sen/rce using 
a major crec£t card call (505)695 5333 and order to- 
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DX PACKET PROGRAM-extracIs & saves DX 
spots from AK1A type DX packet cluster net w/o toe- 
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QSL CARDS-Ouafity printing, k>w cost Samples Si 
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Continued on page 9 1 




*B««rvwt*W 




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73 Amateur Radio Today August, 1993 S9 



Numt)^ 27 on your Feedback card 



m m NumD^ 27 on \ 

New products 

Compiled by Charles Warrington WAIRZW 

GLEN MARTIN ENGINEERING 




ANTENNA SALES & 
ACCESSORIES 

ASA has introduced a new HF mo- 
bile antenna package for the enthush 
ast: Model HFA-COM (High Frequency 
Antenna Combination). This package 
consists of five separate frequency 
"fiberwhfps": 10, 15. 20. 40, and 75 
meters. The unique design of these 
fiberwhips eliminates the need for re- 
tuning after each breakdown and set- 
up. The antenna Js designed to with- 
stand a heavy wind load with solid 
brass and chrome- plated hardware to 
handle the elem^^nts. The approximate 
assembled length is eight feet. It is 
priced at $65, plus $5. S & H. For more 
informatton contact ASA, P.O. Box 
34ei, Myrtle BBBCh SC 29578; (800) 
722*2681. Or circle Reader Service 
No. 206, 



AMATEUR 
NETWORKING 



Amateor Motwortung Supply has in- 
troduced two new products designed 
especially for packet network buitders: 
ttie Netrix Dkxle Matrix Board and Uie 
Wire Modem Adapter 

The Netrix is used to create a net- 
iTOfit swrtching node of up to six TNCs. 
Tfie unique stacking configuration 
elrmtnates the need for cables, offers 
significant performance advantages 
such as higher speed ar>d reliabtllty, 
costs less tr^an similar products, and is 
compatible with all TNCs. 

The WireModem Adapter h an Inex* 



G\en Martin Engineering has 
announced the addition of two 
new roof towers to ^ts aluminuffi 
antenna support line. The pre- 
mier model is the RT-936. a 9- 
foot four-teg tower capable of 
mounting up to 28 square feet 
of wind load. T?iis tower weighs 
just 76 pounds and the price is 
$37876- 

The l^hter model is the RT- 
832, weighing only 37 pounds. 
This four-leg lower stands 8 
feet taJt, and will support wind 
loads of up to eight square feet. 
This tower is priced at $189.95. 

Both towers are UPS 
shipabie. Both come complete 
with rotator mounting supports 
and a top plate stamped for di- 
rscA thrust bearing bolt-up. The 
lowers are constructed of 
rugged 6081 -T6 angle alu- 
mlntim with stainless steel 
hardware. 

For more infomriation, con- 
tact Gfen Martin Engineering, 
Route 3, Box 322, BoonviUe 
MO 65233: (876) 882-2734, 
FAX (816) 882-7200. Or circle 
Reader Service No. 202. 



!' :■ 



-: ' 






i 9 



10 1A 



HFA-COM 



pertsive yet reliabte piug-m circuit tfiai 
connects up to six TNCs together via 
Iheir modem disconnect headers, us- 
ing a passive WireLan matrix. Applica- 
tions include connecting multiple net- 
work switching modes together, hard- 



TEN-TEC 

TEN -TEC has In- 
troduced a miniature 
HF transceiver priced 
at $495. Simply plug 
in the desired band 
module and run SS6 
or CW on any ham 
band from 160 
through 10 meters. 
Measuring only 2.5* x 
7,25' X 9.75' and 
weighing five pourvds, {t is aboiJt hall 
the si^e of many small HF 
transceivers. This 50 watt travel com- 
panion truly (its in a briefcase with 
room to spare, A patented Jones filter 
provides variable bandwidth S-pole 
crystal tillering from 500 Hz to 2.5 




kHz. A built-in microprocessor keeps 
the VFO virtuaJly drift-free arxJ bandies 
the built-in iamt)ic keyer. For more in- 
fomiation contact TEN-TEC, ina, P^O. 
Box 8Q7Q, Sevierviile TN 37864; (615} 
453-71 72, FAX (6 fS) 428^483. Or dr- 
cle Reader Servk?e No. 203. 



ADVANCED ELECTRONIC 

APPLICATIONS 

For antenna enthusiasts every- 
where, the new AEA SWR-121 hand- 
hekj antenna analyst provides oompre- 
her^ive antenna performance informa- 
tion in an easy-to-read graphic format 
With its L.CO spectrum disptay. the 
SWR-12t shows an antenna's SWR 
curve over an entire frequency range, 
unlike other Instruments which can 
look at only one frequency a! a time. 
This battery-operated unil is designed 
for portability and easy use. 

For more information, contaol Ati- 
vanced Electronic Appticalions, tnc^, 
P.O. Box C2160, 2006 196ih St SW, 
LynnwQQ^ WA 98036; SaiBS: (206) 
774-5554, fftemtura request tine: (800) 
432*8873. Or circle Reader Service 
No, 201. 





DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS 



DIGITAL Qommunlcatrons Inc. has 
introduced a new voice mail syslem for 
repeaters* consisting of the DCl-lOO 
computer board and the DCI-MULTrM- 
BX multi-user mailtwx software. The 
board plugs into your ISM PC or done 
and connects to your radio or repeater. 
Individual messages are recorded by 
one user for replay by another. They 
are recorded on your hard disk m Indi- 
vidual maiie}oxes for replay at a later 
time. The only limit on the number of 



users or messages is the size of the 
hard dislc. You can store roughly an 
hour's worth of messages tor every 20 
Mb of free disk space. The DCI-iOO 
board is priced at £1 99 and the EX^I- 
MULTlMex software is pficed at $60. 
For further informatton contact DiGt^ 
TAL Communicatxms tnc^, 8946 Shook 
Road, RR 04, Mission. B.C.. CanadA 
V2V 5M2; (604) 820-it62, FAX (604) 
828-0704. Or circle Reader Service 
No. 204, 



wiring a data sen^r into the networtc, 
90 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 



or creating a gateway between drffer- 
ent network types. The WireModem 
can operate at 1d,200 tsaud or more. 

Both products are compatible with 
ROSE and TheNET networks. For 



prices and more information contact 
Amateur Networking Suppty, P.O. Box 
219, Montvale NJ 07645; (207} $7$- 
2777, Or circle Reader Service No. 

2oa 



ROSS^ $$$$ USED AUGUST SPECIALS: KEN- 
WOOD SM-230, $750.00; TS-130S, $480.00; TS- 
9S0SD, $3,000-00; BC-7, $75.00; ICOM IC-3200A, 
$399.90; 2KU $1,200.00; IC-701 AND IC-701PS. 
$560.00; YAESU FT-101ZD, $539.90; FL-2100F. 
$429.90; FRG 8800, $580.00; YO-101, $200.00; 
TOTAL COLLINS S LINE STATION, $1,500.00; 
VIDEOCIPHER 2000E, 2100E. $330.00 TO 
$400.00; SRD-aOOO, $700.00; LNB-45 DEGREE, 
$50.00; X-10 MESH DtSH, $390.00; HALLI- 
CRAFTERS KT-37. $399.90; HT-41. $595.90. For 
more information call and ask for ROSS AT 
(208)852-0830 or send 2 stamps. We have over 
240 used items in stock. Menlton ad. Prices cash, 
RO.B. Preston. ROSS DISTRIBUTING COMPANY, 
78 South Slate, Preston ID 83263. BNB707 

GIANT SOLAR PANELS $44.00 EACH! ExceHent 
Prices/Solar Equipment/Accessories. Free Informa- 
tion/Send Stamped Envelope. Catalog $3.00. To: 
QUAD ENERGY, P.O. Box 690073, Houston TX 
77269. (71 3)893-031 3. BN871 6 

SIMPLEX REPEATERS $149,001 We manufacture 
them ourselves. QUAD ENERGY. (713)893-0313. 

BNB716 

ELECTRON TUBES: All types and sizes. Transmit- 
ting, receiving, mJcrowave ,.. Large inventory = 
same day shipping, DAILY ELECTRONICS, 10914 
NE 39m ST Suite B-6, Vancouver, WA 98682. 
(800)346-6667 or (206)896-8856. BN87 1 9 

MINIATURE POLICE RADAR TRANSMITTER One 

mile range. $41 assembled, $31.00 kit, (219)489- 
1711. P.O. Box 80096, Fort Wayne IN 46S98. 

BN8725 

HAM RADIO REPAIR— Prompt service. ROBERT 
HALL ELECTRONICS, 1660 McKee Rd, Suite A. 
San Jose CA 951 1 6. (408)729-8200. BNB751 

THERMOGRAPHED CARDSi Raised print QSLs at 
ffet printing prices. Samples: Phone (817)461-6443 
or write: W5YI Group, Box 565101, Dallas TX 
75356. BNB761 

WANTED; HAM EQUIPMENT AND OTHER PROP- 
ERTY, The Radio Club of Junior High School 22 
NYC, fnc. is not only the Big Apple's largest Ham 
Club but also the nations only full time, non-profit or- 
ganization, working to get Ham Radio into schools 
around the country as a theme for teaching using 
our EDUCOM- Education Thai Communication- pro- 
gram. Send your tadio to school. Your donated am- 
ateur or related property, which will be picked up or 
shipping arranged, means a tax deduction to the full 
extent of the law for you as we are an IRS 501 (c) 
(3) charity in our thirteenth year of sen/ ice. Your 
help will also mean a whole new world of education- 
al opportunity for children around the country. Ra- 
dios you can write off, kids you canl. Please, write- 
phone-or FAX the WB2JKJ "22 Crew" today: The 
RC of JHS 22. POB 1052, New York NY 10002. 
Telephone (516)674-4072 and FAX (516)674-9600, 
Young people^ nationwide, can get high on Ham Ra- 
dio with your heip. Meet us on Ihe WB2JKJ CLASS- 
ROOM NET: 7.238 MHz. 1100 1230 UTC and 
21.395 MHz. 1300-1900 daily, also at the ARRL Na- 
tional Convention in Huntsville AL, Augtist 14-16 

BNB762 

LICENSE PLATE HOLDERS {Chrome or Black) 
with message plates. Your name and call letters en- 
graved. Designed mail box plate (12 1/2" X 4 1/4"), 
black. Name and number engraved. Chrome or 
black license plate holder $10.50. Mali box plate 
$12.50. Each order, S&H $2.50. N.E. MARION EN- 
GRAVING, R.FD 2, Box 360, Peterborough NH 
03458* BNB770 

Continued on page 92 



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Camftietfi BooKshop - Classics^ Hrstdry, Cooking, Jokes! ♦■ $15 
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EJictionares ^ Limftuasesitfiesaurus, word prcx;, 12 langs* $15 
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Onjif Salaf System: Excitinft NASA pliolos -i-astron pnogs* $1S 
Sharoware Overfoadl ■ 600nnCi, zJppod, recent releases?* $15 
Sotjnd SensatioriS: souivda, voices for Aditts. J3fldt)l&tr, rriidi* $15 
TechnoTools: C/C++, easic, dBfise, Urtis, OS/S, Assy. moreE* $16 
Too Many Typeforts! ATM/Adobe-l, TrueType, HPU, utils* $15 
WlrclftvMafe - profis for Windows, tmai, educ. utils, games' SlS 
WOJld TraveEer: bfeathtakir^nlultl madia slide show $15 
AwduBnn's Birds of America or M^jinmala (choose one] $29 
fleauly and the Beast -WultifFiedia road-afon^. Educational'! $4.9 
QJaztrug Graphics (D^tj^er Mot Stuff) exciting VRfletHy a $19 
Consan The Cimmcnam: EJciting actiorj, anu odvcfiture $39 
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Grammy Aware!?: htied with 34 yeare o1 rriuSic/sound/image5[ $59 
Magaziri* Articles/Summaftes -lOOa of USA's top periodtcals $9 
Mayi5 Clinic: III us family hea^Ui guide and reference $39 
National Geographic M^mnnaJs Errcyclope^Uci rrHjl Lamed lo $33 
PC Sig Garr^es; New' Incl Wolfenstei" 30, CmmdJ Keen* $19 
PticMsrJiK Shareware vol 2 $19: vxrf 3 New!* ^^"^ 
ProPhone '92{:MiStS). $39 - PnoPhone ■93(7-dJscs) $129 
Publish It! FUN featured deshtop puh\ with fonts! DOS. $29 
Sqftwgre JukfiBos - SelertvMare's software sampler &. rtetriDa $39 
Space Adventure; (Krwwd Adtf) interractive ehldrns adventure $49 
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* noted CDs contain share ware^ piublic domain ^ commerolal software 
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EVERY ISSUE 
of 73 

on microfiche! 

The entire run of 73 from October. 1 960 
through last year is available. 

You can have access to the treasures of 
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We offer a battery operated hand held 
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The cotlection of over 600 microfiche, is 
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73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1993 91 



Like ¥ Pocket ? Cfiock Fylt (if Feotures and Tii^sl 






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FREE SHAREWARE AMD HAM CATALOG for IBM 

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DIGITAL SWR and POWER METER, Assemble, 
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NEVER BEFOREt 20,000 shareware programs on 
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Dealers wanted! CROSLEY SOFTWARE, Box 
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AMATEUR RADIO REPAIRtl all makes Si models 
average labor per unit, $96.00. W7HBF, DAN 
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PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS for 73 Magazine pro- 
jects. Drilled, plated, G10. Techno Whizzy-1 VFO, 
$7.50; Matrix, $8.Q0j Amp $5.50. Also boards for 
QST, HamRadioi Nuts S Voits; Electronics Now, 
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orders DEDUCT 20%. B-C-D ELECTRONICS, Box 
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92 73 Amateur Radio Today August, 1993 



WANTED; BUY & SELL AM lypes of ElectroTi 
Tubes. Call (612)429-9397, Fax (612)429-0929. C 
& H ELECTRONICS, Harold BramstKJL 6104 Egg 
Lake Road. Hugo MN 5503S. BNB91 5 

COMMODORE S4 HAM PROGftAMS^S disk sides 
over 200 Ham programs $16.95.j'$.29 stamp gets 
unusual software calalog of Uliltties. Games. Adult 
and British Disks- HOME-SPUN SOFTWARE, Box 
1 064-BB, Estero FL 3392S. BNB917 

ACS NUOB BB5I Free access, over 16,000 pro- 
g rams .{31 6)2S 1 -276 1 . BN B923 

INEXPENSIVE HAM RADfO EQUIPMENT Send 
postage stamp for ftsL Jim Brady WA4DS0, 3037 
Audrey DR. . Gastonia NC 28054, BNB927 

USED AND NEW AMATEUR RADlOp SWL, AND 
SCANNERS, We duy, sell, consign and trade used 
equtpmer^l. Thirty day warranty. Western Pertnsyl- 
vajuas' newest Amateur Fiadio supprjer. We aJso ol- 
fei* complete repairs on most types of equipment 
Call for quotes. FOR HAMS ONLY, INC. INFO 
{412)a25-9450. ORDERS ONLY (800)854-0815. 
ROBB KE3EE. BNB929 

FREE HAM GOSPEL TRACTS. SASE N3FTT, 
5133 Gramercy, Clifton Heights PA 19018, BNB960 

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS for projects in 73, 
Ham Radio, OST, ARRL Handbook. List SASE. 
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60118. BN3966 

A2DEN SERVICE by former factory technician 
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INC., 10715 SW 190 St. i9, Miami FL 33157. 
{305)238-3327. BNB979 

COMPUTIR & PRINTER USERS: SAM Amateur 
Radio Callstgn Database S39-9S. S3. 00 shipping. 
Renew your ribtxjns. Ink for 20 to 30 rein king $6,00 
plus $3.00 shipping. C 4 S ENTERPRISES. RO. 
Box 561, Clinton MS 39056. Sid Wilson, WB5GFM. 

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SURPLUS Huge quantities. Lowest prices in Amer- 
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I BUY ELECTRON (VACUUM) TUBES Mag- 
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PICTURE QSL CARDS of your shack, etc. from 
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kit S2.00. half pound of samples $3.00, RAUM'S, 
8617 Orchard Road, Coopersburg PA 18036. 
Fax/Phone (21 5)679-7238. BNBSaS 

CELLULAR HACKERS BIBLE- $54.45; Cellular 
Programmers Bible-$84.45; Cable Hackers Video- 
$39.95; Satellite Hacf^ers Bible'$56.95; Scanner 
Hackers Bible'$34,45. TELECODE, RQ. Box 
6426'RF, Yuma AZ 85366-6426. BNB993 

VIDEOClPHER/SATELLITE/SCANNERyCABLE/ 
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AIDIOSPECTRIM ANALYZER 




CiflCLE 311 ON READEFI SERVICE CAHO 



Amateur Radio Language Gl de 



Huidii^ds oi phrsso, e£peoiaHy for the hajn radio operator 
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CIRCLE 3^ ON READER SERVICE CARD 



73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1993 93 



Uncle Wayne's Bookshelf 



REFERENCE 



2QN102 PT«etii:al Dlgrt^ Eledronics Hsndboolt &v Mikf TW- 
Jlri BA. Contsiot nine d%iul test gear projeo-v. Di|:irEjr tinruit'i.. Idpc 
^ntcy, bixtibles mad timetv micnjpf^xxtswrv cnemory ind inpui/ouipiJl 
dcvKCk $l45t 

20N 103 El«ctniiie t*owef Supp^ Hancn>oolc b^ Im R, SinHair 
CcHirs many types oC applies — bacieflev %m\y<\c AC supplies^ t wiidi 
mode vupptiot und mvmcr^. Sl^>-25 

^N(104 El«clroniC Tesi Equipmenl HandbOOlC hy Sieve Money 
A f Hide 10 electron iic icsi cquiptncnt for ihe engineer, ifichnician, ^.tu- 
deni and home efuhusirtst. Sl&MJ 

^N105 Digital Logil: Gal6£ and Flip- Flops hy fon R Sinclair A 
firiti lii>uiiil:itLun in clif^iLal electronic^;. Tneois il^c [Opkr!)< of ^jecs and 
ilip»f]0|Vi. ihorou^hly ami frtnn ihc beginning. SKSlOO 

OICBO Master Handbook of 1001 P radical Electroniic 
CIrOUJIS TTieU and proven ^<jM ^lotc circuits. $19.95 

Di PSS Pirate- Radio Stations by Andrew Yt^y Tuning in u> under- 
i;ruund bn>iiika:i(,^. $12.45 

OlTOl Tib namfner Hunting by J^turpft Mivt! md Thomas Curfee 
Rjjtodifcaioti rinding ^impli Tied. $19:95 

03R02 fltty Today by Dni-e fngmm Modem guide la ama&eu? ra- 
dknektypc $4,50 

05ED3 Rrst Book of Hodefii Eteclionici thiique pn^yccti that 
we fwoey sjving- Sll.95 

0»3Z^ T?ie Worid Ham N«t Dir«ctOfY t*^ !^f*^ witL^wxU Hem-- 
3ai edition. Lntrpduccs the spectsl mtcft-^t hjm raJic ncf worts ml 
ihow^ )fOEi i^Iko aiy wtnc ydq cmi tmm ihrm m. fi9_54 

09P33 PInle Radio Directory **¥ Cttuj^e 2eikf Whcrt to mtte \a 

10RI93 19^ Int&maHonal Caffbooh Tlie ivw 199? IntCTnabnal 
CatllKNik ittifL 3UOjLI0U-(- luicensed radio anuieiFn m the <^ounine% 'OtiH^ 
ilde S'onh AiTKtka. It cwcrs Scwih America. Europe, Africm. A%i^ 
aid Lhc PigifW an (cificlusivc of Hzwati and ihc ULS. |KHae»iofB>, 
SZ9.95 




10O093 t993 Norm Am&ricui CaJltMK* The IW3 Nofth Amcntan 
C^fboofc Jists ih< Calli^ ciiutics. i^ «kiic^ information for 500LWO li- 
ocmed radi-o aamtun in oil cotimiies of Nonh Aitiefk^ S29.9S 

05H24 Radio Handboolc. 23rd Ed by HTJEfun r ^ir m^A/ S40 
p^lH of cvtryifiing you «ki«(d id kiwfr aixibf fadio conmuijii<»iioe. 
S39^ 



Q3B10 H^aUi NosHigi* J^t Fffry Penhu JtTfTP 124 p^ tU 
htdiiHy of the FkMh CoBr^»o>. Includn nany fqnd Enaixne cfNtfibuted 
bjr km^'iEttK Hc^kil enfikfyeo, S9J4 

10DF32 1993 CaUteoh Sypptement An updiie to the 1992 littenu- 
liooaJind AmeiicHctllbookiL itftjOO 

12E7B Buic EiKtiOillet P/i^/w«J K lAf BWwi* ^WbwT IVnonil 
Covers ihe trr^ponjiflit tf^pecu of ^pplidd ciaraotiks. ADd c fa c m oai o etni' 
muijcaiqm. %19S5 



f 2Ei1 Second Level Ba^ Bedronfcs Prefmrvd frr c^ ftv- 
rtau i^ iSiivni Ftfstwicl Sc^jucl to B»ic EJrarank^. dHmi^ 
ifCtfinefif of dw more advanced level; of pppti^ ckoronia. I9J5 

D1D45 The Illustrated DfCtkKiaiy of Bectronic$, 5Di Ed by 
itt^ Pr Turner ^nd ^ion ijibilufif Aji eKh^jMive lt4 of ^l^ic via- 
ticHK. jkhI appcDdicci pocksd. widi ■chtnuik f^ymboH and confer- 

20N091 Most-Of ten-Needed Radio DtagrBms and Servie- 
Ing Information. 1926-1938, Volume Orvt ampiif4 by M.N, 
lieiimaft An in%-u]u:ibl£ mtfcrcncc ior anyone involved in Vin[3^ 
kudid rciitorallon. $1U5 

20NO96 How To Read Schematics (4th Ed.) by ihrnaU EL 
Nfimnaton Wriiten for the bcj^inncr in cteci ionics, but it also con- 
Ed n!i iiifanrmtLon v^uable lu the liohbyist jiiid engineering techni- 
dmi. IN.95 

20NQ97 Radio Operator's World Atla« hy Watr Stfnion. 
WOCP This is a. ccrrtpL^'t (5x7), detniled, and tumprehcnAivt 
world at\iis deiii^fied eo be a constant de^k mp (;ufi^p^miun Tur radio 
opemtoTi. S17JS 

H>M09@ EJectromagnetic Man by Cyrii Smith untt Simtm Best 
Hedldi and ha/jid tn the elecuical envimnment 129.95 

20NOZO S«cr«ls of RF CircMlt Dtaign by Joseph J Cair 
Written m cicss noo-technicol Lamfuoge, covers cvcrythifl^ rroiit 
aaiKfiia^ to tisast^onL 11930 

20N107 Ham Stuff A coinp i e h e iattTC birfef "^^ £wde and dJiKto- 
tj. %BS5 

2DN109 73 Magazine thdei 1960-1990 A complOf lt>dc% lo 
t%try antck ^ublis^bal ia 71 Maics::ine ihmigh 199(1 Book SlSiM) 
IBM wftwan: t specify type i S2tjN 

20N110 Pfoduct Reviews Sirtca 1945 Coi«aHK an indn to 
3Mti pioduci fc views thM h^vr appuir^ m O^T, CQ. MIL 71 and 
Madtmt. Booi $1X95 LBSi S^^fi^art 5.25 ItO.OO 



SHORTWAVE s 



0$S57 19S3 Passport \d World Band Radio by 
Iniemational Broa(k;a&ting Services, Ltd You'll 

get the Eatest slatipn and time grids. $1 B.5D 

03S1 1 Shortwave Receivers Past and Present 
edited by Fred J. Oslerman Guide to 200+ 
stiortwavG receivers rnanufadured in the last 
20 years The Biue Book ot sliortwava radio 

value, S3. 95 

07f^5 The RTTY Listener by Fred Ostermen 
New and expanded. This spedaCized book 
complex issuer i through 2S of ihe RTTY Lis* 
tem&f isfewsietter. Contains up^-to-date, hard- 
lo-'ind information on advanced RTTY and 
FA){ monitonng {edmiques arKl froquenoes. 
S19.9S 

03CO9 ^>ortwave C^ndesine Confidviiil by 
faeny L Oeicier Covers a^ dandestir^ broad- 
cas&iQ, coLtfiirY-by-Qtiimtry: t&lts fTE<pjenoes. 
other unpublished information: spy, insuf- 
gsnl*, IkMdom fighters, t^o^, arwchisi raiio. 
woref r>aoL 58^ 

0aM221 US UMaty Cormwteaiate (Pan t) 
US Mtftary commitfiication tttaiviefe on short< 
wave. Covers trequendes. baclqftound on 
poini'io-po^nt fr«<tuenc;eB fof the PfMfppmes. 
Jlaj^an and Korea. IncEan ard Padfic Ocearts, 
«dmore.Sl2J5 

09M222 US Military Communicatrons (Part2) 
Covers US Coast Guard, NASA, CAP, FAA, 
Dept. ol Energv, Federal Emerge r>cy Manage- 
ment Agency, Disaster Communications, 
FCC. DepL or Justice . From 14 KC to 9073 
KG. 5^2.96 

03M223 US mUtSKy Commjnicalions (Pad 3) 
Completer Ihe vast overall frequency list of 
US Mill la ry service &, from 8993 KC to 27,944 

09542 The Scanner Uslener's Handbook by 
Edward Soomre N2BFF Get tti^ mosi ool ol 
your scanner ladio. $t4j3!5 



1 1TBB Tune In on Telephone Calls by Ttm 
Kneitel K2AES Formatted as a frequency list 
with detailed descnptlon of eacfi s<Bn/lco and 
Its locaiion in RF spedrunip $12.95 

03K205 Guide to Radiotetetype (RTTY) Sta- 
tions by J. Klingenfuss Updated book covers 
a\\ RTTY stations from aWHz 30MHz Prft^$. 
MiNlary, Commercial Meteo. PTTs. em- 
bassies, and more. S12.95 

llAStO Air ScsnGiitde lo Aeroriaiiitcal Com- 
fTuntctlsons {5th Ed > 

t?y Tom Kneitel K2AES Most comprehfins^ve 
giBde 10 manttgring US aeronaulMia/ commiA^ 
caitt«4 CovorB at Canadiart lard aiipocis srvi 
seaplane bases, plus listings lor Central 
America, the Caribbean. North M»ni^ w6 
Ihe Parisfic TemtoTies- S14.9S 

15A002 Scanner arxl Shortwave Answer Gook 
by Bob Grove Most fr^uently asked ques- 
tions by hobbyists. $13^ 

Q7A66 Aeronautical CtMSnunicaiions Hand- 
book iff Robert £. Evans Exhaustive, scholar- 
hf treatment of shortwave aeronauiiqal lisjen- 
mg. S19.95 

11RF13 The Top SecreT Regtstiy of US Gov- 
emment Radio Frequencies (7ih Ed J by Tom 
Kneitel K2AES This scanner directory has bo- 
come the standard reference source for fre» 
quency and other Innponani information relat- 
ing to the communications of federal agen- 
cies. $19.95 

11F52 Ferrell's Conndential Freqtiency List, 
New Revised Edition 

compiled by AG. Halligey AJI fr^ucngies from 
4 MHi'2ewlHi covering ship, embassy, aroo^ 
VolmeL Interpol, numbers. Air Force 
One/Two, more, Si 9.50 

11SR97 NatkK\al Dif^eciory of Survival Radio 
Ftequencies by Torn Kneitel K2AES Handy 



and eofwHse fefererrce guide lo W0h Ifilerest 

oonnmunications frequencies requltied by SUf- 
vlvalists. $8.93 

1 1SM 1 1 Scanner Modillcailon Handbook, Vol 
1 by Bill Creek provides airaightf onward step- 
by-step instaictions for expanding thf^ operat- 
ing capatjilittes of VHF scanners. $17.95 

llEEOe GtJtde to Embassy Espionage Com- 
munications hy Tom Kneirtel K2AES Candid 
end probing eitami nation of worldwide em- 
bassy and (aEleged) espionage communica- 
bones systems and netwodts. SlO.95 

tSO^ 1993 Siortwave Oirectocy (8^ Ed ) by 
BqbOfcwe Extensively revised, the now 19^ 
Shomrave Directory 45 the co^summaie DX= 
er's txbte for the first 30 MHz o* radtc spec- 
bum, up-io-date aiid ssufBte. S2 1 tS 



A F6ck of tie Sw^ch. t930-19S0 by 
Morgan E. McMahor) Discover !h? '3st-gmw- 
ing hobby of facte cdlecting SS.95 

071^26 World WkJe Aen^nauticaf Communica^ 
tiorts by Robert E. Evans Aifcrah/Air Traffic 
Contrct. Aircraltr Company OperatiDns. Avia- 
Don Weath^f Broadcasts. Aeronawtical Flighi 
Tests, Worldwide Military Air Forces, Aero 
Search & Rescue. Aero Law Enforcemeni. 
NASA Rghit Support ^ Aero Terms & Atsbrevia^ 
lions and Aero Tactical Idantiftcrs, Se.95 

'HTBS Scanner Modification Handbook Vol 2 
by Bill Creek Here fl is— a oorripanion to Vol. f. 
In tact. Vol. 2 has a seciJon that provides Im- 
proved approaci>es and updated tochniquos 
for the mods in Vol. 1. There's ifl new eKCiting 
modifications for popular scanners. $17.95 

OSROf World press Services Frequencies 
(RTTY) New 54h Ed A comprehensive manual 
covenng radiotetetype news monitonng — con- 
tains all information — antenna, receiving, ;ef* 
minaf units, plus three esttensive frequency 
lists. S8.9S 



SOFTWARE 



04M54 GGTl Morse Tutor From beginner to 1! it- 
Era cUss in easy .'ilf-paccd ]e^MJn^. Code speeds from 

1 to E^vcr lOfl wordi^ p<r itiiiiuie. SiiirtJurd or 
Fanwwonh mtJtIc. Adjusiabic lont frequency. Creiite 
y-Ourown Jrid:^^ practice or jiuiuijl CicaiUfi. Eumti*; con- 
foniii to FCC ri^quircriiciKh. 5 1/4" fllJppy ftir IBM PC, 
XT, AT. PS/2 m comjisiiibks. $l*iO 

D4MS5 Advanced Edition (29,95 

2QND21 No Coda Ham Had^Q Education Pack* 
age Computer .sofiwuic iKickagc, IncJuiles t'ompui£r 
liided iiMtruction !){>ri'waJ'C fIBM compatibltl. ZUdi 
p9|e If am Radio HamlbocL $2:9.95 

20NC22 Ham Operator Education Rftchage 
Compalcr sofi«harc cnntjjn^ five IBM tHumpjiiible 
dl^ci widi a] I ijitevikxis (tjr alt ticrniu: classes, pliii. 
"Mors^ MnJemy' code teicht^g v^fiw^ve jhM akn 
you InMn D-20 wpm. Uf .95 

Lanzs Code Programs— (Av^Uito on 1 iM~ cfliL] 
fne^poisj'kt CDdifilcic innly pmk cak p ro p i um far 
both the CbiftIM Ciwmnodonpi jnd die IBM 
Mk. Prrnr— I ntluik updaicd fCC qacakioak. 
pic dxKX BBverv ]»Tmi>lA. 1ci1t1u1.1L: iN)-inM&, #' 
■ri snriAd <VE^ lii^ieleiL 

Pncc 
»I4.«5 
il4*5 
fl4JS 

tlf.9S 
S19JS 



IBMPte^ 

Tfdi mM02 

General mMO^ 

Ad^iDDc IBMOI 

E %tn. (Sev Ptool > TBMOJ 



Cdnmodcirt rin# 
IBMDt COMOI 
C0Mfl3 
COMOJl 
COMW 
COM05 



IQMaG, COM06 IBM/Cofnmodore Tech No 
Code — Lanze Code Program Contair^ii alt 1 be 
^uihDn7£d FCC quci^iinn^ and snhU'cr<i u^cd in teMing 
rormulas, schemaiic sjr'mbnt!^. di:if!rAin!i. uiiJ Fiumplc 
tc<it For p3,s;^ing ihe new Technician Nu CcKk licence. 

l8Md7 Amateur FladFo Part 97 Rules InfliMle!^ 
tJ|xlaT«d, icvkHt-J Cumnii^sitiri's Rules, Sep[c tuber }tJ, 
]9at?5 1/4" disk IBM CQinpjlible tmly. i9.95 



VIS Stutiy Carti* Compiii-l, up-to-date Ritifi Cards] 


mh Key Words. Underlined, Qui/ an Ntck. 


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144$ 




-/?T3 



ARRL BOOKS 



AR19^ ARRL 1993 Hanlbook (TOth Ed.) 3^ 
chapicn^, fciiiurinj; 2.100 tables, ftgurcs arnJ chans. 
Coirpreh£nsiivc, well n'ri;HTii/ed ami Jiffordsit^le, 
$15M 

ARAQB&4 ARRL Operating Manual (4th Ed) 
tnTormaiiofl on tuiw lo nuike ihc bta um uf yvmr 
0^1 icn, including: inlcrfaciiig \mmc compuicm. 
OSCAR. VHF UHF. ll%M 

AR0^94 Allien na Cdfupendium Vol. t Mjie- 
riak on vertical^ tiuaiK. \aop\^ y^^^^. rediKCd ttUC 

mm.%t%M 

AR2545 Antenna Compendium Vot. 2 Cav- 
ern vcnioik. yigJiK qmcK ifUiliibguKl md bftMid^ 
hanti ^>Mcm^. ^nicnna lelcidicin. SII,Ot 

AR401 7 Antenna ConLpendJum Vol 3 Ntm 
yancvK. ^'i^ii. quKi^, ptus kiop%. vimyt. mobile^ 
tfiiccikn findia^ CAnEfflillcd ciirrenti. OMnptitef'- 

for bcp^ocr's Id nhrmited. SI4.M 

AR^^€ Compaciiofi So^ware tot Animmm 
Compendium VoL 1 5 IM' MS-DOS no|ip;, 

AFKHSS W1FB*& AntefVU HotftbOOlC JW f%mf 
OeMiP».' W'IFB Get the bcM pcrfDmuim emu of im 
obtru^rv« ivife afuecti,^ and renjcaK Build tmcfi 
anil£WR|)nd|^ |9J* 

AR0348 QftP Ii0t*b«0l( by 00iijr /^rMtfw 

AR4141 WIFB's Ottsign NoletMMK frv Of»«# 

DrMLTti- Wif-H Filkd wiih iifiiplc potiicaJ project! 
thoi can b^ built aung readily j variable Cdin|>0' 
ocBis. and cacnEiiaii Juind lool^ S 10.00 

AR220a Antenna Impedanee MaicMilQ by 
^dfred N, Ctinm Mo^ OMnprciwns i\« boofc wiil- 
len on using Smith Ctiirts in folving impcdjinct 
marching prablcnu- $15.W 

AHD402 SoUd Stats E>esign Good. h.i<\c infofw 
nutL-oiU cifcuil dc^ign^ and ;i[)p]i(;jifio!n>; ^k^crifl' 
ti<ms of niceiver:, ir^jtn^miitcr?^ power juipplw^, ukI 
icstequipmeni- 11 LOO 

AR3193 Weatheit SateUite Handbook (4th 
Ed.} by Of. fiatpii fafi^art WBUDijT Enpamkd 

ANTENNAS 

20 N 103 The Easy Wire Antanna Handbook 
hy Dave Ingram K4tWJ. dives yoy uU of ihc 
needed dimcriiiionis for u Ttitl range uf cw^y (o build 
umi trecE "sky wires." $9.H0 

10A343 All About Cubical Quad Antennas 
hy Witliii»i On uttd Sitmn Cuwun "The Cilimsic" 
on Qund design « theory. coniiituciiDn, npcmiicm. 
New feed iinti moichinjg sys;lcms. New ilutu. Sll.WS 

01A70 Practical Antenna Handbook hy 
imeph J. Ctirr DcNign, build,, irmlify, aad int^tall 

UHF/VHF/PA CKET. 

01P22-2 The Packet Radio Handbook (2nd 
Ed.) by Jtmushoft L Mayt> KMJT "...die ileRnfiivc 
pii6c Ui inuitcur prn^kd opemion,'" -Gw^n Reedj^ 
Wl BEL Only Sl*.W 

20N013 U.S. Repeater MaptKxrit ^.r WiUiam 
Smith mMQS Titf Guide for travel iqg iwlio vm- 



And rcvi^d to rcflcci today ^s weather- fiix liatc^li^tc 
technEjIpgy, $20jOO 

AR3290 Companion Software for Weatt^er 
Satellite HandtK>ok 5 1/4" MS-DOS Floppy. 
$10.00 

AR3291 No« You're Talking! All You Need 
To Oaf Your First Ham Radio Ucense {2nd 
Editicin)i A comptoe study guide for the Tedmi- 
iCait and Nm'icc wnosn exam. Ftncdcal infofinAion 
evcfy be^oer tKnnk h wrincn cleafty aiKl dimply 
and m vmall dot^. $19jM 

AR3292 Your Introduction to Hofse Code: 
pt^cUce Cassettes Kit tncludie:^ two 90 minmc 
CKocttc tjpc^. Pic^pif^ jnou ^ the 5 AhTM Mehsc 
CiTde eiam lo cam yc?ur Novice licQasc dr add hi|^ 
f^KjuencY vprldwidc ccmvnunicaiions pn^ntcfCi lo 
youf code-Free Techmcian liceiwc- SIQJOO 

ARa437 ARRL Repeater Directory 1993- 
T9§4 l9.00G^lBtiz^ wifhdifipcscit, bafidpliAS, 
CTCS^ |PUTX1»| tot^ chart, frcqueaicy cnDnfinir 
icirm, AKKL specdJ senice cJub^ and beactm Ib«- 
ii^ fimn 14 MHje tst 24GH/- 54.00 

AR1D33 Trie DXCC Companion b^ Jim Kear- 
mti/i A'Af 5 Spells oat in ^mpb. sitaighi forward 
icrm^ wliai vent need to be a siKce^sful DXer. 

AR 1250 Log Book-Spsra) S3J9 

ARA341 Intefference H9ndt>ook RR nlcuA's 
cipcriencc m solving Inierferciice pnotikms. 

AA2197 ABRL Dala Book Valuable aid to the 
ftF de^ij^n engineer, tfchmcian. radio aifuKCur, and 
Cx|)cnmcatcr. $12.tt 

AR2960 Transmission Line Transformers 

{2nd Ed.) by Dr. Jerry Soviet WlFMl Practical 
de^ii^nf and specific infonnnti^n on construct ion 
lechniqui^ aiKl i^ources of material- SSOJQO 

AR0410 Yagi Antenna Design A Ham Radio 
%cric^ potlfihcd and expanded by Dr. Liiwson. 
$15.00 

AR2'F71 Hints and Kinks [clc^<; for setting up 
yuar ge£ir fur ctimroriublc. efficient operation. 



10A342 All About Verticle Antennasfr^^ 
Wiiiiam Orr Comprehensive coverage of amateur 
ccimmunPCQlTUiiSr $1(1.9'5 

10A345 Beam Antenna Handbook by Wittium 
Orr and Stuart Cftwan Everything you need to 
Itn&w ^boni beam desipi, confitmction, and opera- 
lion, $]K9S 

tOA346 Simple. Low-Cost Wire Anlennas 
For Radio Amateurs by WiUiam Orr md Sitmn 
Ctmn» AtJ Nc:wl Lx^w^^Kt. irulti-hand antennas; 
jneupcn^K'c bcamii. 'Invisible ' anlcnniu!: for haili!^ 
In n(xi|;h<" locaiifHu;! New daix SI 1.95 



D9V1 1 The Basic Guide to VHFAJHF Kam 
ftadiO by Edward M. Nuti Pravides a fus mt in- 
troduciiem to ihc 1^ and 1.25 rneier lands as «tII 
ait 2.\ 33. and TUim |6Jt 

03B{)2 RTTY Today hv Dave Ingram tt4TWJ 
Mwit compscheiuivc RTTV guide ever puMidicd. 



BOOKS FOR BEGINNERS 



02EM2 [>igilal Hovtee by Jim Gr^^Ckm^to 

aake ym a nvxe Lnowicdptite 



01M7 Stiortwave Listener's Ant«nnt 
HandtKXiN; Primer aflseocta theory, tlJJ5 

05C25 Ba$jc A.C, Circuits a smp-by-itep ap- 

for the be^iiuiu^ ^udenL $2430 



20N100 Electron jcs Buitd and Leani (£fid 
EdL) b\ RA FcnfoM Ccmitsnes thetwy and practice 
s» dui yoa Caft "k^r« by doifl^" $1 JL50 



2QI40tS Technician Ct^ License Mantiaf- 
Hew HO-Code by C»ir4tm Wm Ihu bot^ «>^er^ 
everything y w need lo become !• Tetiihrikian C\m.% 
H^n, E^'e^y que:itt'Qn and answer on (tie ei^ainiiia^ 
tkiBs k found id ihtci oae book. FCC Focin btti 7^ 
p&ctfjdii.^JS 

20N092 TTie Woniirfui World of Hsm Ra> 
dio bry ftkJmrd Skotmk K»41jCS Sinipk, clcir« 
aid iiDi. Intitidoces youc^ peopic lo amaiaiif rvTio. 



20NOd9 I>igrta{ ElieMin'ics Projects for Be- 
ginners ty Omm Bishop CootBiiK 12 digital ekc- 
tmiM^ pfojects suitable for the tjeginncr lo baM 
ifrilh die mmiinuiii gf cquipcnctc $124,50 

Af^2073 r^ovfce Antenna HotelXK* A bepn- 
ncr% fUKte to easy iAd cSitai^t aiMe&na^ and 
lUDCis yimi can buiM. $9jSI 

AR2071 WTFB's Help for New Hams by 
DtJOft OeMitm WifB Coniplcie for dK newnwci. 
nil lOfrihrr a siaion and get on the air. $ltJi 

AR22S6 First Steps m fladlo by Doax DeMaw 
HJfe Sene»oC£/J7^rti^ks. %SM 



AR3169 ORP Classics Conipilatinrt of ARRL 
publications on building receivers, tram^mi tiers, 
transceivers^ accfK&oncs. $1 2J00 

ARRL License Manuals Camp^^tc FCC ques- 
tion pools widi ajtswcrt, 

AR^75 Technictan Cls^ UM 

AR?3S3 General Class Sci.UO 

AB0 1 BG Advanced C lass S^ilO 

AFt2^l Extra Class Ss.oo 

AR31S5 The Satellfte Experimenief's Hsfid- 
book« |2nd €d.> h Afarm DaitdiJ^KimCBi- 
pamled and rrvtsedt Focusing on i^eHnp timli by 
and for the iniemaiional radio amateur comrniiniiy. 
%3MM 

AR2456 FCC Rule Book (tth Ed.) A mif^ for 
ci«iy aaiire radio oftviicur S1f-00 

AR2030 Your G«t«w«y tO Picket R>dio 
(2nd Ed.) Teik everythiop you need (o know 
Jtew this popiiLif nc« mode^ llUi 



AR21D3 Satellite Anthology THt latest infor- 
miitkwi on OSCAR*; ? through 13 as well as ihc RS 
fuitellite«. Ehc use {>f diiiital modes,^ trac]itin^ anten- 
nas. RUDAK_ microcoiTipuier^ and more! £5jDD 

AR2e98 Space Almanac by Anthflm- fl Cunix 
K3KXK Kecetn news from space. $20JMI 

AR2Qe3 Complete DX^er (2nd Ed.) by Bob 
lacker ^VKNl Lcajn bcm lO bum DX and ttxaui 
hanUc^^et Q5L canls. $12,00 

*gmm ARRL Aniefltfia Book The new 16ih 
Editioci i^jTcscai^ the besi and mog liigtily icgard- 
ed infcMaialiofl on acKima hmdaoiemalx transmn' 
sipn lineV d^ign. and constniction of wirr aiiqea- 
iU5.S2fLIK) 

AR3293 Morse Code: Tlie Essential Lan- 
guage by L Peter Carram Jr. W3DKV Ex|WKled 
:ind levbcd hd ixs lad cdiikKL How lo hmik di»- 
UdS calb head aoi oo^y on dK hambands tul tm 
mardimc and a iiuafi fieqycocifs, $400 



CODE TAPES 



73fT05 "Genesis" 5595 

5 w p i p— Til is bc:finnii^ taipe, takri you thttiufli 

the 1^ kitcr&, 1(t numbers, and KceiULary |Hine- 

tuaij<3>fl, compleie «-nh pnciice every tiep of tbe 

way. 

73T06 -The SlickJw" SS.95 
^ wpA— Tim v^ the praoiia Ei^ k$ ^Bmc *l» %vr- 
tived the 3 ih-pn tape, anl il'i alio the tqK Ibr die 
Novice and Tcdtfliciaii ticrnv^t. It b comprised ol 
me lolid Ikoir of code. Obractcn, ^e set at 13 wfHit 
SMJI s^ct& ai 5 M|im. 



73Tl3*BackBreafc€r' SS.S5 
13+ wpsi — Code grtHps a^ain, ai a briidt 11+ 
wpin SD yuo H tie really 31 ease wfien you sit dq«-tt 
in fioai of a steely-eyed vohjnteer exsnincr wtw 
st»D HSKling ythi plain lan^iuze code ai «ily U 



73T2& "Cotfrageous" S5.95 
24+ w^ Co^atidationsl Okay, the chalice of 
code is whai's gonco you this far, » dtw't quit 
new. Gp for dK exira i:)as« lieense. We !cnd ihe 
eode faster ihait 20 per- 



WAYNE'S PICKS 



SSa756 Wemir*9! The Electric ily Around 
You May Be Huardous To Your Heallh by 
EUen Sufttirmtin An invaluable £uide to the riNks of 
electramsi(!7ieti4£ fields and «iteps you can take lo 
proieci y^sufself and your family. Si L90 

EDa€75l Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden 
Ci^rKculum o1 Compulsory Schooling by 
JiAin Gaitii If yw enjoyed "Declare War^ ycu'lt 



enjoy this also, A Wayne Green recommended 
readinfi. $9.»S 

"We The People^ Declare Warl On Our 
Lousy Goveffiment by Wayrxe Green A '^mitJtl 
read" for evxry American taxpayer. Solutions to 
every problem facing our government loday. 
$11^5 



r 



Uncle Wayne's Bookshelf Order Form 



1 



You may order by maiL telephone, or fax. All payments are I o be in 
US funds. Allow 3 weeks for deli very. 



Item 


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All arderft add SS.OO shipping. 
U.S. orders shipped UPS, {Alaska ^ Hawaii shipped via malL) 
Airmail to Canada and all overseas orders FOB Peterborough, NH* 
Make chocks payat>te lo "Uncta Wayne's Bookshelf/ 



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Telephone: (603) 924-41 96 (800) 234-8458 

FAX: (603) 924-8613 
Mall: Uncle Wayne's Bookshelf, 70 Route 202N, 

Peterborough, NH 03458 uwoesa 



J 



Number 2S on your Feedback card 



H^^ Number 20 on your 

Random output 

David Cassidy NIGPH , 



Not That Anybody Asked Me, 
But . . . 

, . - We had a great time al Uie Dallas 
hamfest this past June, I'll take Dallas over 
Dayton any day. 

. . , Now that the Novice license test! rig 
fails under the VE program, how Jong do 
you think it will take for Ihe Novice license 
to go the way of the dinosaur? Also, how- 
many hundreds ot youngsters living in 
npn-urban areas will say "ah, screw if 
when they find out they have to convince 
Mom or Dad to drive them a hundred miles 
or more for a Jlcense test? 

, . . Why do volunteer examiners get to 
charge a fee? I thought this was a hobby 
Let's see, if you have 25 people show up 
for an exam session, and they each give 
you five bucks, you'd walk home with a Eit- 
lie over 340 in your pocket (assuming that 
you split tho total among the three VEs), 
Not bad for an hour's work, 

, » . I hear that the new software being 
installed at the FCC licensing tacifity in 
Gettysburg has provisions for assigning 
special callsigns for a fee. I hope 
Congress lets the FCC keep the money 
they collect for issuing custom callsigns. 

* .. , Our sister publication ^ Radio Fun, 
achieved something unheard of in the pub- 
lishing world, A "renewal percentage" js 
the number of renewafs a magazine gets 
every month, compared to the number of 
people whose subscriptions expire in that 
month. Anything over 70% is considered 
excellent (73 consistently has a renewal 
percentage of around 80%). In February, 
Hadio Fun had approximately 3500 expira- 
tions, and only 3 subscribers didn't renew. 
That's close enough to call it a renewal 
percentage of 100%. It's gratifying to l<now 
how much the readers of Radio Fun love 
thei^r magazine. 

, . . We had a nice 6 meter opening on 
the East Coast last week. From my shaci< 
in New Hampshire (using an antenna cut 
for 10 meters), I heard stations in Virginia 
and South Carolina. I was on the phone 
with Gordon West yesterday (he lives on 
Ihe West Coast) and while we were chat- 
ting his 2 meter radio started receiving the 
beacon from Hawaii, Ah, doncha' jusi love 
summer band condfljonsl 

. , . Why Is it so difficult to get people to 
have a real conversation on the ham 
bands? We have got to stop this Ihree- 
minute monologue then give your callsign" 
type of QSO. You don't do that with your 
buddies on the focal repeater, so why do 
we all turn into Edward R. Murrow when 
we get on HF? 

- . . i've got my 20 meter portabfe QRP 
station all set for my summer camping 
trips, 

. . . Could you guys on 20 meter CW 
slow down a Eiltle? I haven't worlted a 
whole lot of CW lately and I'm a little rusty. 

. . . Does anyone out there know how to 
keep deer from eating your tomatoes? 
Last year, I started about 30 tomato plants 
from seed, in my Kitchen window, in the 
middle of February. I babied those little 
plants and had enough plum tomatoes 
ripening by August to last us ail winter (If 
youVe never made tomato sauce with 
fresh garden tomatoes, you donl know 
what you're missing). I didn't think the deer 
would eat tomatoes, Boy, was I wrong! I 
went away to the National Convention last 
year, and when f got back, there wasn't a 
single tomalo left. 

Tve got three dozen tomato plants of 



atveral dttferent varieties growing in my 
garden this year^ and short of building a 
fence, I can't think of anything that will 
keep the venison from dining on the fruits 
of my labor. Send your gardening tips to 
me, c/o 73. 

. . . Could you guys on 20 meter CW 
please slow down Just a little bit mare? Tm 
rustier than Mhought. 

. . . Would anyone out their like to trade 
some ham gear for an ultralight vehide or 
small plane? Send your inquiries to "The 
Poor Pilots c/o 73. 

. . , Speaking of aviation, if youVo into 
flying and are at all interested in the areas 
of experimental, homebuilts, kitp lanes or 
ultralights, you really ought to be reading 
Kftptanes magazine. The publication is ex- 
tremely welt done, and the head honcho is 
a ham! 

. . . Why do some of you insist on send- 
ing mail to my home address? if you want 
to respond to me in my capacity o1 Assad - 
ate Publisher of this magazine, please 
write to me at the magazine. It really irics 
me when I get business mail at home (and 
I never answer it). 

, . . President Clinton still hasn't found 
anyone to head up the FCC. The woman 
he was rumored to have chosen has with- 
drawn herself from consideration, so as of 
this writing its anybody's guess, 

... As I m writing this, President Clinton 
is having a chat with shuttle astronauts. He 
just mentioned the SAREX program! Hey, 
maybe we should get Chelsea's schoof 
signed up for the next SAREX mission. 
Just think of the positive publicity for ama- 
teur radio. 

... I'd like to get into ATV. 

. . . Speaking ot ATV, I hear that there is 
a move afoot to change the rules so 
ATVers couEd broadcast music as part of 
an ATV transmission. I'm not so sure this 
is a good idea. What do you think? 

. , , Ummm, you guys on 20 meter CW 
—just a Me sJower and I think HI be aJi 
set, 

. > . Have you checked out America On- 
line yet? If youYe usJng Prodigy, you'll be 
amazed at iiow fast a rea! online service 
can be. AOL doesn't mind lor sale" mes- 
sages, doesn't censor like Prodigy does^ 
doesn't force you to read ads^ doesn t 
charge extra for downloading software, al- 
lows you access to Internet e-mail, and it 
has live conference areas, so you can 
communicate in real lime with a whole 
bunch of people about any topic under the 
sun. There's a great ham radio area, too. 
My AOL address is 'D Cass/' if you check 
it out, send me a note. 

. . , Watch for Wayne Green s re-entry 
into the computer publishing field— coming 
to a newsstand near you this summer 

, , . Wayne's other new magazine, The 
S&cret Guide To Music, is growing like 
gangbusters! if you're a corporate music 
slave, you probably wouldn't be interested, 
but if you are the adventurous type and 
would like to find out about thousands of 
independent recordings, you really shoufd 
check it out. They can be reached at the 
same address as 73. 

. , . i love to run into 73 and Radio Fun 
readers on the air. Look lor me on Satur- 
day and Sunday mornings on the 40 and 
17 meter bands (10 meters, too, when it's 
open). You can always send a message 
via packet to N1GPH@WA1W0K,NH. 

. . . OK— you guys on 20 meter CW 
—just a little slower— please. 



Propagation 



Number 29 on your Feedback card 



Jim Gray W1XU 
210 Chateau Circle 
Pay son AZ 85541 

Just when you thought the lousy July 
conditions were going to end, you find out 
the first days of August are probably going 
to be worse! However, from about the 5th 
through the 18th, it looks like conditions 
will be Fair or Fair to Good, with the better 
days from about the 14th to the 18th. Un- 
fortunately, the days between the 19th and 
24th are expected to be Poor or Very Poor, 
but improving slowly, so that the days be- 
tween about the 25th and the 31st will be 
vastly improved, compared to the previous 
week. 

I expect Ihe ionosphere to be greatiy 
disturbed and the earth's magnetic field to 
be at the major stomi level sometime be- 
tween the 20 Ih and 23rd. 

In general, August is a "blah'' month for 
HF propagation, but normally conditions 
improve as September and the fall equinox 
approach. Bear in mind that we are 
now dealing with low to moderate 
solar activity as Cycle 22 rapidly 
nears its 11 -year minimum. 

10-12 Meters 

There wlli be reasonable open- 
ings on north-south paths occa- 
sional ty during the afternoon hours. 
Sometimes there wiil be F2 open- 
ings to Pacific spots and rare ones 
to Europe early in the day during 
the days marked Good on your 
chart. Short skip 1,300-2.300 
miles. 

15-17 Meters 

Regular DX openings are ex- 
pected on days marked Good and 
are expected in the Southern 
Hemisphere during daytime hours, 
especially in the afternoon. Expect 
occasional openings on east-west 
paths to Europe or Africa on days 
marl^ed Fair to Good, with rare ex- 
cel tent conditions to all parts of the 
world on a few days. Short skip 
1 ,000-2,000 miles. 

20 Meters 

This fs probably your best be! 
for worldwide DX on Good days, 
with the band opening from sunrise 
to a bit after sunset iocally. Eariy 
mom-ngs and late afternoons pro- 
vide peak conditions. Short skip 
will range from about 750 miles to 
2,000 miEes frequenliy. 



Jim Gray WIXU 



30-4Q Meters 

On Good days, expect openings from 
after dark to local sunrise to most parts of 
the world. Expect daylight short skip from 
100 miles to 1^000 miles and beyond 
1,000 miles after dark. 

80-1 BO Meters 

Openings will occur on some days dur- 
ing darkness hours and again around sun- 
rise on Good days. Expect frequent trans- 
equatorial skip 100-1 ,000 miles during the 
day {if we're lucky) and beyond 1,000 
miles after dark. Noise is abating from 
summertime levels. On 160 meters, condi- 
tions peak after midnighi and again jus! 
before dawn. This is the best "night-owr 
band for those who are able to take advan- 
tage of it. No openings are expected dur- 
ing the day. however, but during darkness 
hours, you'll woric short skip out to 1,000 
miles and more. 



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96 73Amat0urRadioToday* August, 1993 



"The FT-416 comes in black - or gray!" 



'■'*> 




"New sculpted design, buiIMn VOX, 

back- lit DTMF pad, Yaesu*s 

"Straight AV! Wow!" 

^Yaesu did it again!" 





i 



^,;V 





tt/.tt- 



:zrS? 



U.JX: ^ 



#.^ 



"] 



.n great design '*form follows ^ 
function." Only then dtj<js breakthrt^ugi 
design evolve- Our new generation of HTs 
exemplifies this with the exciting FT-416. 

An industry first, a chdtewf ^;ylQrs - 
traditional black or new-age gray, i 
dynamic ergonomicaliy .sculpted case tha 
fits your palm like a friends handshake are 
only the beginning. New ridged Control 
Knobs with numbered VOL insure perfect 
tuning. And, there's a new molded PTT 
with functions so perfectly aligned they 
respond to the slightest thumb flex. 

Piicked with features, the FT-416 has 
built-in VOX. four-way scan, the largest, 
brightest DTMF ke>^ pad in its class and 
Yaesu s famous "Straight As": ATS - 
Automatic Tone Search, ATT - Advanced 
Track Tuning, ABS - Automatic Battery 
Saver and APO - Automatic Power Off. 
And. Power Output up to 5 Watts. 





4 - I I i I 



FT-416/816 

2-Meter/70cm Handheld 

• Frequency Coverage 
Fr-4l6:l30-174MHzRX 

140-150 MHz TX 
FT-81 6:430-450 MHz RXmC 

• 41 Memories (Odd sp(tts on 
any chanoel) 

• 4 TX Power Levels 
w/FNB-25 2.0J.5J.a0.5W 
w/FNB-27 5a3,0.1.5,0.5W 

• CTCSS Encode/Decode 

• ATS, Automatic Tone Seardi 

• ATT, Advan-ced Track Tunmg 

• ABS, Automatic Battery Saver 

• APO. Automatic Power Ott 

• OirBCt 12V DC Input (5 Watts 
Output) 5 Watts w/^NB-a? 
Battery 

• Back-lit Keypad and Display 

• DTMF Paging and Coded 
Squelch 

• BuiNnVOX 

• Accessodes: 
Compatible with most 
FT-530 and FT-41 5 Series 
accessories. Selected batteries 
in gray. 



^Sv. 





r^a iUU 



T *»1 




During testing amateurs found this 
newest evolution in design remarkably 
unique. "You have to try it to believe it!" 
they said. So we invite you to do just that. 
Contact your Yaesu dealer today and find 
out what true evolution in design means 
to you. 



p^:^ 




FT-416 choice of black or gray 
FT-816 black only 



YAESU 

Perfommnce wiihout compmmise^ 









© T993 Yaesu USA 17210 Edvjards ftoad. Cerr-tos. CA 90701 (310) 404-2700 
S^ecif'cailions SLbsect lo cringe wiHioul nohte Spec^iicatMKts guanntetd on^ wHhiit amaieur ^msms. Some accessones and/bf ophan$ art standard »n ccrtam areas Diecfc Mntti your local Vsesu deafei for sptcif^ details 



jSJo 



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'%%P^^ 



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'»/• 



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* '+ 



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A nettf/dom in high-peilormance HF 
\V communicati6!|^ ^ 




KENWCKJD COMMUhtlCATlONS CORPORAl 

AWATtUR Pu*CHO PBOCXJCTS GROUP 
P.O. BDK 33745, 3^0^ E OoffongueJ Stwl 
ttmg Beach, CA 90flO1-574S 

KENWOOD ELECTRONICS CANADA INC. 
^TO Kestf^ Road. WiS5i5saygA.OintanD. CAn^fta L5T 1 50 

93ARD'0675